water cost Articles

  • Transformational adaptation – when climate change means business as usual is no longer possible

    1. A lesson from the past Deep in the central Sahara, a crumbling mud-brick town sits at the edge of a dry lake bed. This is the medieval town of Germa, in southwestern Libya, one of a string of settlements along the Wadi al-Ajal, a valley defined by the towering dunes of the Ubari Sand Sea to the north, and the black cliffs of the Messak Settafet plateau to the south. Germa is romantic ...


    By Garama 3C Ltd

  • Sludge Blanket Level Detection – making new process opportunities possible

    Much Pulsar's Self-Cleaning Viper Sludge Sensor of the demonstrating the effective maintenance-free solution. discussion around the way we deal with sewage sludge – the way it is moved around the process, the bellmouth valves and decant processes, the downstream treatment of the liquors, important issues around TOTEX and discharge Compliance, plus more recently the ...

  • Thoroughly modern installers keep on industry trend

    The ErP Directive, through its various iterations since 2009, not only places high demands on the efficiency levels of a wide range of heating products, and especially hot water storage in our homes, but also on installers to communicate the benefits of greater energy efficiency to their customers. If the target to reduce energy use by 20% by 2020 is remotely realistic, not only has product ...


    By Kingspan Environmental Ltd

  • Fire Codes: A Foundation of Safety for a Rapidly Changing World

    Chief among these safety features is fire protection. There are myriad codes and regulations relating to fire safety in commercial buildings, from standards on portable fire extinguishers to the installation of stationary pumps for fire protection — the U.S.- based National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) alone has more than 300 consensus codes that have been adopted in whole or in part ...

  • F4 Spill In Situ Bioremediation Applications

    F4 Completed an in situ water bioremediation program of Bio-ReClaim in northern Alberta; a pipeline leaked crude oil over a 14 hectare area in muskeg. Alberta Environment (AEP) allowed the in situ water application of Bio-Reclaim by F4 Environmental. Keeping in mind the application was performed without any ground disturbance and extremely cost effective compared to the ...


    By F4 Environmental Inc.

  • How to choose open cell or closed cell articulated concrete blocks

    Are you wondering what the best, most cost-effective solution is for erosion control at your construction site? There are a variety of solutions available, but we always highly recommend the use of articulated concrete blocks. These systems are a great alternative to what can otherwise be a costly, time-consuming task in erosion control. Articulated concrete block systems can be used in a wide ...

  • Changing the Rules with Mass Detection

    How simplified detectors can provide mass data for every analytical run and speed up method development With access to multiple mass spectrometry systems of varying degrees of sophistication, Davy Guillarme (University of Geneva, Switzerland) wasn’t actively looking for new mass detection solutions. Nevertheless, the Waters ACQUITY QDa mass detector caught his eye. Why? Because it opens a ...


    By Waters Corporation

  • LED Applications for Oil and Gas Refining and Processing

    Oil and gas processing facilities are unsafe due to the existence of hazardous compounds during operations. When addressing such issues, companies in the sector may deploy explosion proof lighting systems to prevent the ignition of sparks created from the electrical equipment. The adoption of LED technology in oil and gas refineries has helped reinforce key safety measures associated with ...


    By Larson Electronics LLC

  • Tire Shredding: The Best Alternative

    From cars and trucks to planes, tractors, and forklifts, tires are used for a wide variety of vehicles. And those tires don’t last forever. Regardless of how many miles a tire travels, it should not be used longer than ten years past its manufacture date, as the rubber will grow brittle and can crack. This isn’t usually a problem, though, since most tires are replaced within three or ...


    By ECO Green Equipment

  • The benefits of monitoring compressed air

    Compressed air is used in many manufacturing processes for many different reasons, from the actuation and control of pneumatic valves and cylinders to the operation of process machinery and tooling. It can also be used as a transport medium for bulk materials or as a purge gas. For all its uses it is nonetheless expensive. This is why, through detailed monitoring, a business can enjoy the ...


    By Contrec Europe Limited

  • Monitoring Gas Emissions from Volcanoes to Predict Volcanic Activity

    To understand and predict the behaviour of volcanoes an increasing number of scientists are combining geological monitoring and geochemical models. By measuring and monitoring the prevalence of gases like CO2, scientists hope to be able to better predict the likelihood of volcanic eruptions. In 2010 Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted, releasing 250 million ...


    By Edinburgh Instruments Ltd

  • How to achieve triple bottom line sustainability benefits on airport runway projects

    CH2M delivers best-in-class sustainable approaches for airport clients worldwide by constantly seeking opportunities to apply sustainable development and design concepts. From planning through plowing, CH2M is leading the development of the most sustainable runway projects in the U.S. Through our life-cycle approach, airport clients have experienced significant benefits such as ...


    By CH2M Hill Companies, Ltd.

  • How a Specialized Automatic Control Valve Solved Flooding

    The Colombian area of Antioquia creates much of its clean power from hydropower plants along the Guadalupe River. The Guadalupe IV hydroelectric plant generates power with three vertical axis turbines that discharge water below the river level. To prevent flooding, however, the plant needed a solution that ensured the ejector ...


    By Singer Valve Inc.

  • Low energy mixing to optimize anaerobic digestion at the Kitchener WWTP

    The existing Kitchener Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) is a conventional secondary treatment facility, with a rated capacity of 122,745 mVd. The plant is comprised of two separate secondary treatment plants (Plant 1 and Plant 2) served by a common headworks facilities and primary clarifier facilities. Plant 1 was constructed in the early 1960s and Plant 2 was constructed in the mid-1970s. Both ...

  • Understanding the True Cost of Water

    Overcoming Barriers to Corporate Water Stewardship For companies pursuing corporate water stewardship strategies, a common barrier to action is the perceived low cost of water “at the tap.” Water reduction, reuse, and recycling projects often do not meet investment hurdle rates or compare positively to other investments. This also acts to limit community and watershed ...

  • Sinking Costs

    Today there is more pressure than ever for businesses to minimize costs and increase productivity. Companies are always looking for ways to reduce overall costs. Unfortunately, these efforts are often hampered when a company is faced with an environmental investigation. Regulatory agency requirements, such as determining the full horizontal and vertical extent of contamination in soil and/or ...


  • Decrease Operating Costs with Water Recycling

    Compliments to the growing competition from NAFTA, tighter environmental regulations, and increasing demand for higher quality finished products, the profits for Fresh Cut Food processors has decreased over the years. Profits canbe as low as a few cents per pound of finished product. Plant managers and engineers are scrambling to find methods of decreasing the processing operating costs and still ...


    By Integrated Engineers Inc.

  • Impact of water volume on operating cost

    Sustainable water management relies on the ability to control operating cost which relies in turn on a working knowledge of factors which can affect this ability. The impact of water volume on operating cost is investigated for water utilities using data from the International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET) online database. Econometric models are estimated for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Review and evaluation of desalination cost and costing methodologies

    Recently, desalination is becoming a viable alternative for supplying potable water due to new developments in desalination technologies. At present, the cost of desalinated water is about US$0.5/m³ by RO and US$ 1.0/m³ by thermal processes. But these costs are location dependent. Thus the selection of an appropriate desalination technology for any location needs a reliable and accurate costing ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Cost-Effective Control of Interdependent Water Pollutants

    Abstract  Excess nutrient loads to coastal waters lead to increased production of algae, which when decaying cause oxygen depletion in bottom sediments, which in turn leads to major changes in marine ecosystems. A cost-minimization model was investigated in which nitrogen and phosphorus were assumed to interact with respect to algae production. It was investigated under what conditions only ...


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