water cost Articles

  • How big is the distributed energy opportunity for water and wastewater utilities?

    Energy costs for water utilities are large, and growing Energy is a significant cost for many water utilities, and costs are growing as more energy-intensive forms of water supply, including desalination, are being used. Energy is typically the second-largest utility budget item in developed countries, after labour. In many developing countries, energy can account for 70% or even more, of ...

  • Interactive energetic optimisation of a waste water treatment plant by means of a load profile

    Funding project "Energy optimisation of the clarification plant Blümeltal" in the environment innovation programme Abstract Interactive Energetic Optimisation of a Waste water Treatment System Using a Load Profile Funded Project "Energy Optimisation of the Blümeltal Waste Water Treatment Plant" in the Environment Innovation Programme The Blümeltal waste ...


    By BITControl GmbH

  • Control Algae and Improve the Water Quality in Waste Stabilization Ponds

    Due to population growth, accelerated urbanisation and economic development, the quantity of waste water generated is increasing globally. Mainly in low-income areas, a large proportion of the waste water is discharged directly in the environment. When the waste water is treated, the treatment plants may not remove certain pollutants that can have a negative impact on the people and ecosystem. ...


    By LG Sonic

  • Advancements in Scaling Calculations and an in depth look at Antiscalant dosing for stressed waters and high recovery systems

    Abstract Over the past few decades the Reverse Osmosis (RO) industry has observed an increase in applications in challenging waters. Water sources that were never considered suitable for RO are now commonplace, including municipal waste streams, industrial waste, and even mining waste. Furthermore, regulatory restrictions, environmental obligations, solid waste expenses, and water supply ...


    By Avista Technologies

  • Building Energy Modeling 101: HVAC Design and Operation Use Case

    A great deal of energy use in buildings goes toward heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC). In 2015, HVAC consumed 15.5 quads. The first step in reducing HVAC energy use is reducing heating and cooling load—i.e., the amount of heat that needs to be added to or removed from a building—typically by reducing heat from equipment and lighting; minimizing unnecessary ...


    By US Department of Energy

  • Turning waste into wattage

    How we are helping to meet the growing demand for waste energy recovery It’s a sign of the times that more and more companies and organisations are now looking at ways to capitalise on the waste material their production process produces rather than having to pay a third part to take it away for them.  One reason of course is the high cost of scrappage.  Another is the ...


    By Todaysure Limited

  • How a Specialized Automatic Control Valve Solved Flooding

    The Colombian area of Antioquia creates much of its clean power from hydropower plants along the Guadalupe River. The Guadalupe IV hydroelectric plant generates power with three vertical axis turbines that discharge water below the river level. To prevent flooding, however, the plant needed a solution that ensured the ejector ...


    By Singer Valve Inc.

  • Understanding the True Cost of Water

    Overcoming Barriers to Corporate Water Stewardship For companies pursuing corporate water stewardship strategies, a common barrier to action is the perceived low cost of water “at the tap.” Water reduction, reuse, and recycling projects often do not meet investment hurdle rates or compare positively to other investments. This also acts to limit community and watershed ...

  • Sinking Costs

    Today there is more pressure than ever for businesses to minimize costs and increase productivity. Companies are always looking for ways to reduce overall costs. Unfortunately, these efforts are often hampered when a company is faced with an environmental investigation. Regulatory agency requirements, such as determining the full horizontal and vertical extent of contamination in soil and/or ...


  • Decrease Operating Costs with Water Recycling

    Compliments to the growing competition from NAFTA, tighter environmental regulations, and increasing demand for higher quality finished products, the profits for Fresh Cut Food processors has decreased over the years. Profits canbe as low as a few cents per pound of finished product. Plant managers and engineers are scrambling to find methods of decreasing the processing operating costs and still ...


    By Integrated Engineers Inc.

  • Impact of water volume on operating cost

    Sustainable water management relies on the ability to control operating cost which relies in turn on a working knowledge of factors which can affect this ability. The impact of water volume on operating cost is investigated for water utilities using data from the International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET) online database. Econometric models are estimated for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Review and evaluation of desalination cost and costing methodologies

    Recently, desalination is becoming a viable alternative for supplying potable water due to new developments in desalination technologies. At present, the cost of desalinated water is about US$0.5/m³ by RO and US$ 1.0/m³ by thermal processes. But these costs are location dependent. Thus the selection of an appropriate desalination technology for any location needs a reliable and accurate costing ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Cost-Effective Control of Interdependent Water Pollutants

    Abstract  Excess nutrient loads to coastal waters lead to increased production of algae, which when decaying cause oxygen depletion in bottom sediments, which in turn leads to major changes in marine ecosystems. A cost-minimization model was investigated in which nitrogen and phosphorus were assumed to interact with respect to algae production. It was investigated under what conditions only ...


  • Cost–benefit and water resources policy: a survey

    This paper reviews recent developments in cost–benefit analysis for water policy researchers who wish to understand the applications of economic principles to inform emerging water policy debates. The cost–benefit framework can provide a comparison of total economic gains and losses resulting from a proposed water policy. Cost–benefit analysis can provide decision-makers with a comparison of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Estimated Costs to Utilities for Issuing A Boil Water Advisory

    The United States Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) has stringent standards in place to ensure the safe distribution of water. However, water quality problems (e.g. water main breaks, elevated turbidity, microbiological non-compliance, etc.) can result in these standards not being met. The consequence of this is often a boil water advisory to inform the public that the water is unsafe to drink. ...

  • Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Cost effectiveness of centralised and decentralised storm water treatment

    As part of a research & development project commissioned by the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia's Ministry for the Environment and Nature Conservation, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (MUNLV) an examination is being carried out of the general possibilities for centralised and decentralised treatment storm water runoff to be discharged into (canalised) receiving waters and the costs ensuing ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The energy cost of water independence: the case of Singapore

    Finding alternative resources to secure or increase water availability is a key issue in most urban areas. This makes the research of alternative and local water resources of increasing importance. In the context of political tension with its main water provider (Malaysia), Singapore has been implementing a comprehensive water policy for some decades, which relies on water demand management and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessment of cost recovery through water pricing

    Setting the scene The environmental resources situation is shaped by changes in climatic conditions, coupled with pressures exerted by a rapidly growing global population, its increasing demands and the subsequent impacts on the environment. Current practices across the economy sectors are still not sufficiently ambitious in terms of sustainability; they fail to ameliorate the stress ...

  • Controoling chlorine costs

    The most widespread disinfectant used in the treatment of drinking water is chlorine, which can be applied in a variety of ways. History has taught us that, in bacteriological terms, chlorinating water is a proven way of disinfecting drinking water. After all, more than 75 years have passed since chlorine was used to disinfect drinking water for the first time. Many years of experience have shown ...


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