water demand Articles

  • Development and Application of Oxygen Demand Testing using Industrial Effluent - Case Study

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop capacity and protocols for oxygen demand testing that can be used for instruction and research within the BioScience Technology program. For application purposes we chose the PeCOD® Analyzer which offers a unique nanotechnology-based approach to Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis. Background ...


    By MANTECH

  • Singapore a model for effective water management

    Singapore continues to be a model of effective water management as more and more countries begin experiencing water scarcity. To some, the Asian city-state (which occupies an area roughly a quarter the size of Rhode Island) may seem an unlikely beacon for water efficiency. But, to achieve water security and self-sufficiency, residents have been helping leaders meet national water management ...


    By Fluence Corporation

  • Demand management in urban water supply

    Since the 1930s, the drinking water supply of the Rabat-Casablanca coastal area has depended on water transfers from groundwater, from Maamora, and surface water, from the Bou Regreg Basin. Assessments carried out during the 1980s, based on patterns of water use at that time, showed that by 2010, transfers ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hourly water demand forecasting for micro water grids

    Many countries have problems related to water scarcity and are thus seeking to promote greater water efficiency. A micro water grid (MWG) is a high-efficiency water management system that integrates information and communication technologies (ICT) for the water distribution systems in individual buildings. More accurate forecasting of hourly water demand is necessary if these systems are to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Adaptable urban water demand prediction system

    In this work, identification of 24-hours-ahead water demand prediction model based on historical water demand data is considered. As part of the identification procedure, the input variable selection algorithm based on partial mutual information is implemented. It is shown that meteorological data on a daily basis are not relevant for the water demand prediction in the sense of partial mutual ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Price elasticity of residential water demand in California

    This study used meta-analysis to assess the influence of price/price structures on residential water demand in two selected urban areas in California: East Los Angeles and South San Francisco. Monthly usage data for the years 2002–2011 were utilized to determine and compare price elasticities for periods when uniform and tiered rates were charged using fixed effects panel regression and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A stochastic model for daily residential water demand

    Residential water demand is a random variable which influences greatly the performance of municipal water distribution systems (WDSs). The water request at network nodes reflects the behavior of the residential users, and a proper characterization of their water use habits is vital for the hydraulic system modeling. This study presents a stochastic approach for the characterization of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of chemical oxygen demand to drinking water

    “This study investigated the use of a photoelectrochemical chemical oxygen demand (peCOD) analyzer for the detection of model organic compounds and natural organic matter (NOM) from four drinking water treatment plants in Nova Scotia, Canada. Most model organic compounds showed ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Efficient water conservation in agriculture for growing urban water demands in Jordan

    A significant worldwide challenge is to increase the food supply to accommodate a population growing to 9,000,000,000 in the face of climate change. Per capita water supply in Jordan is among the world's lowest. Despite this scarcity, three-quarters of Jordan's water use is consumed by irrigated agriculture, while producing low economic values from additional water used compared to urban uses. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water and the city: exploring links between urban growth and water demand management

    Urban water management is currently understood as a socio-technical problem, including both technologies and engineering interventions as well as socioeconomic dimensions and contexts vis-à-vis both end users and institutions. In this framework, perhaps the most important driver of urban water demand, at the intersection between engineering, social and economic domains, is urban growth. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Estimating residential water demand in the absence of volumetric water pricing

    Rapid population growth has significantly increased the magnitude of water shortages in California. Although water shortages already exist, some of the state's utility systems are still not providing their residents with financial incentives for water conservation. Instead of using water meters to charge households according to their actual water usage, they are charging a flat fee for unlimited ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • What is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)?

    Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis is a measurement of the oxygen-depletion capacity of a water sample contaminated with organic waste matter. Specifically, it measures the equivalent amount of oxygen required to chemically oxidize organic compounds in water. Why Measure COD? COD is used as a general indicator of water quality and is an integral part of all water quality ...


    By MANTECH

  • Determining System demand case study

    The system demand is a function of water usage and location, expressed as gallon(s) per minute (gpm) and pound(s) per square inch gauge (psig), respectively. Usage or flow (gpm) can be determined using one of several methods (refer to Table IV.1.1 for typical demands): 1) Pressure required, as stated in pounds per square inch or PSI, is the pressure needed for the fixtures in the house or ...


    By Cycle Stop Valves, Inc.

  • Blending microbes demands gentle touch

    Environmental-restoration product manufacturer requires fast, uniform, gentle blending of powdered microbes, enzymes and nutrients The microbial formulations that United-Tech, Inc. produces are used to break down or detoxify a broad array of complex, often-toxic organic compounds, greasy spills and other contaminants in a variety of ...

  • Why is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) a useful parameter for drinking water analysis?

    Ask the Expert: COD Analysis for Drinking Water Question: Why is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) a useful parameter for drinking water analysis? Answer: At very basic level Chemical Oxygen ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Assessment of Environmental Water Demands (EWD) of Forests for Two Distinct Indian Ecosystems

    Abstract  Sustainable use of water and land resources requires that these scarce resources be appropriately allocated among various competing human activities. Worldwide, there is a realization now that sustainable river basin management should be accorded the highest priority, because it deals not only with technical, but also with ecological and socioeconomic aspects, and thus calls for a ...


  • Water Supply Needs at Odds with Regional Demands to Lower Power Use

    The shoreline of the Red Sea is a dazzling destination for tourists and locals to experience the beach and enjoy marine activities. In Egypt, the shoreline sprawls from the Suez Canal in the north, down to the southern part of the country bordering Sudan. Though most of Egypt’s population has traditionally lived in the Cairo metro ...


    By Energy Recovery Inc

  • Generation of synthetic cross-correlated water demand time series

    This paper presents a procedure for generating synthetic district-level series of hourly water demand coefficients cross-correlated in space (between districts) and time. The procedure consists of two steps: (1) generation of hourly water demand coefficients which respect, for each hour of the day, pre-assigned means and variances; and (2) introduction of the cross-correlation at different time ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Household demand for improved water supply services in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia

    With population growth and urbanization, demand for improved water services has been growing. It is imperative therefore to examine different factors that influence demand for improved water services and the resultant welfare changes. Using cross-sectional household survey data collected through structured questionnaire from ten administrative units in Mekelle City, we estimate household ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Five variants of a procedure for spatial aggregation of synthetic water demand time series

    A comparison of five variants of a procedure for spatial aggregation of synthetic water demand time series is presented. This procedure allows for the spatial aggregation of hourly synthetic water demand time series preserving mean and variance at user level in such a way that the statistics of the spatially aggregated time series are reproduced (mean, variance, lag-1 temporal correlation, lag-1 ...


    By IWA Publishing

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