water demand Articles

  • Monroe Environmental Saves Steel Mill $145,000 on Clarifier Upgrade and Meets Stringent Performance Requirements

    Challenge A prominent midwestern steel mill needed to put one of its blast furnaces back online in order to increase production and keep up with rising demand. Blast furnace “C”, said to be one of the most efficient blast furnaces in the world for its size, required a large volume of water to maintain proper operation, and the mill’s existing water treatment plant was ...

  • Demand management in urban water supply

    Since the 1930s, the drinking water supply of the Rabat-Casablanca coastal area has depended on water transfers from groundwater, from Maamora, and surface water, from the Bou Regreg Basin. Assessments carried out during the 1980s, based on patterns of water use at that time, showed that by 2010, transfers ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hourly water demand forecasting for micro water grids

    Many countries have problems related to water scarcity and are thus seeking to promote greater water efficiency. A micro water grid (MWG) is a high-efficiency water management system that integrates information and communication technologies (ICT) for the water distribution systems in individual buildings. More accurate forecasting of hourly water demand is necessary if these systems are to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Highest Demands on the Fitting Technology

    Protecting our environment requires sophisticated plant and process technology. Thus, the requirements of the planners and operators of systems for water technology to the reliability and reliability of the fittings are used. In addition, planners, plant constructors, as well as the operators in the selection of the valves oriented from an economic point of view increasingly oriented to ...


    By Adamant Valves

  • Adaptable urban water demand prediction system

    In this work, identification of 24-hours-ahead water demand prediction model based on historical water demand data is considered. As part of the identification procedure, the input variable selection algorithm based on partial mutual information is implemented. It is shown that meteorological data on a daily basis are not relevant for the water demand prediction in the sense of partial mutual ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of chemical oxygen demand to drinking water

    “This study investigated the use of a photoelectrochemical chemical oxygen demand (peCOD) analyzer for the detection of model organic compounds and natural organic matter (NOM) from four drinking water treatment plants in Nova Scotia, Canada. Most model organic compounds showed ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Price elasticity of residential water demand in California

    This study used meta-analysis to assess the influence of price/price structures on residential water demand in two selected urban areas in California: East Los Angeles and South San Francisco. Monthly usage data for the years 2002–2011 were utilized to determine and compare price elasticities for periods when uniform and tiered rates were charged using fixed effects panel regression and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A stochastic model for daily residential water demand

    Residential water demand is a random variable which influences greatly the performance of municipal water distribution systems (WDSs). The water request at network nodes reflects the behavior of the residential users, and a proper characterization of their water use habits is vital for the hydraulic system modeling. This study presents a stochastic approach for the characterization of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water and the city: exploring links between urban growth and water demand management

    Urban water management is currently understood as a socio-technical problem, including both technologies and engineering interventions as well as socioeconomic dimensions and contexts vis-à-vis both end users and institutions. In this framework, perhaps the most important driver of urban water demand, at the intersection between engineering, social and economic domains, is urban growth. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Estimating residential water demand in the absence of volumetric water pricing

    Rapid population growth has significantly increased the magnitude of water shortages in California. Although water shortages already exist, some of the state's utility systems are still not providing their residents with financial incentives for water conservation. Instead of using water meters to charge households according to their actual water usage, they are charging a flat fee for unlimited ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Efficient water conservation in agriculture for growing urban water demands in Jordan

    A significant worldwide challenge is to increase the food supply to accommodate a population growing to 9,000,000,000 in the face of climate change. Per capita water supply in Jordan is among the world's lowest. Despite this scarcity, three-quarters of Jordan's water use is consumed by irrigated agriculture, while producing low economic values from additional water used compared to urban uses. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • What is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)?

    Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis is a measurement of the oxygen-depletion capacity of a water sample contaminated with organic waste matter. Specifically, it measures the equivalent amount of oxygen required to chemically oxidize organic compounds in water. Why Measure COD? COD is used as a general indicator of water quality and is an integral part of all water quality ...


    By MANTECH Inc.

  • Determining System demand case study

    The system demand is a function of water usage and location, expressed as gallon(s) per minute (gpm) and pound(s) per square inch gauge (psig), respectively. Usage or flow (gpm) can be determined using one of several methods (refer to Table IV.1.1 for typical demands): 1) Pressure required, as stated in pounds per square inch or PSI, is the pressure needed for the fixtures in the house or ...


    By Cycle Stop Valves, Inc.

  • Blending microbes demands gentle touch

    Environmental-restoration product manufacturer requires fast, uniform, gentle blending of powdered microbes, enzymes and nutrients The microbial formulations that United-Tech, Inc. produces are used to break down or detoxify a broad array of complex, often-toxic organic compounds, greasy spills and other contaminants in a variety of ...

  • Why is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) a useful parameter for drinking water analysis?

    Ask the Expert: COD Analysis for Drinking Water Question: Why is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) a useful parameter for drinking water analysis? Answer: At very basic level Chemical Oxygen ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Examining the effectiveness of residential water demand-side management policies in Israel

    Increasing global water shortage is enhancing the need for water management policies, such as water demand policies. This study presents the main water demand-side management policies implemented in Israel, designed to reduce water demand in the urban sector, and subsequently examines their effectiveness by an econometric model, based on residential water consumption data. The main findings ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • New directions in understanding household water demand: a practices perspective

    Understanding the nature of current household water use is important for forecasting future demand and for designing effective water efficiency interventions. This paper argues that to develop this understanding further it is necessary to shift away from the current focus on sociodemographic characteristics as predictors of litres used towards the everyday practices of household members through ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A genetic algorithm for demand pattern and leakage estimation in a water distribution network

    The sustainable management of water supply networks requires the control of physical pipe leakages, such as those due to junction obsolescence or pipe creeping. These leakages usually increase with the operating pressure, and their discharge is commonly assumed to scale with the power of the pressure. The same functional form is also employed to evaluate leakage occurring in the portion of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Linking water consumption smart metering with census data to improve demand management

    This study uses high-frequency water consumption data from 311 smart meters to link consumption with census data. For this purpose a well-established procedure was adopted. Results include the identification of the socio-demographic profiles associated to low, medium, medium-high and high water consumption groups and distinct daily consumption patterns in terms of the period of the day with ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Analysis of domestic water demand variables of a residential colony in Ajmer, Rajasthan (India)

    In this paper, significant variables of domestic urban water demand required for the purpose of estimation of urban water supply in five planned colonies of the City of Ajmer, Rajasthan, India, are identified. The data for these 16 variables are entered in the multiple linear regression (MLR) (stepwise) models in SPSS software, and domestic water demand models are developed. Based on these ...


    By IWA Publishing

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