water demand Articles

  • Where Is the Most Water Reuse Taking Place?

    Water reuse is becoming increasingly important as water scarcity becomes prevalent throughout the world. Whether it’s referred to as water reuse, water recycling, water reclamation, or another name, the resulting purified wastewater can be used in many applications, both potable and nonpotable. In some places, water reuse has been slow to catch on, particularly because of the so-called ...


    By Fluence Corporation

  • Fuel preparation technology – the latest safety considerations

    The specifications for new fuel preparation technologies are becoming increasingly sophisticated, as industry innovation continues apace. But when it comes to investing in waste shredders that help manufacture cement fuels, which criteria should top the procurement wish-list in 2018? With more than 25 years’ experience in this sector, Peter Streinik, head of UNTHA’s waste shredding ...


    By UNTHA Shredding Technology

  • Demand management in urban water supply

    Since the 1930s, the drinking water supply of the Rabat-Casablanca coastal area has depended on water transfers from groundwater, from Maamora, and surface water, from the Bou Regreg Basin. Assessments carried out during the 1980s, based on patterns of water use at that time, showed that by 2010, transfers ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hourly water demand forecasting for micro water grids

    Many countries have problems related to water scarcity and are thus seeking to promote greater water efficiency. A micro water grid (MWG) is a high-efficiency water management system that integrates information and communication technologies (ICT) for the water distribution systems in individual buildings. More accurate forecasting of hourly water demand is necessary if these systems are to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Adaptable urban water demand prediction system

    In this work, identification of 24-hours-ahead water demand prediction model based on historical water demand data is considered. As part of the identification procedure, the input variable selection algorithm based on partial mutual information is implemented. It is shown that meteorological data on a daily basis are not relevant for the water demand prediction in the sense of partial mutual ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of chemical oxygen demand to drinking water

    “This study investigated the use of a photoelectrochemical chemical oxygen demand (peCOD) analyzer for the detection of model organic compounds and natural organic matter (NOM) from four drinking water treatment plants in Nova Scotia, Canada. Most model organic compounds showed ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Price elasticity of residential water demand in California

    This study used meta-analysis to assess the influence of price/price structures on residential water demand in two selected urban areas in California: East Los Angeles and South San Francisco. Monthly usage data for the years 2002–2011 were utilized to determine and compare price elasticities for periods when uniform and tiered rates were charged using fixed effects panel regression and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A stochastic model for daily residential water demand

    Residential water demand is a random variable which influences greatly the performance of municipal water distribution systems (WDSs). The water request at network nodes reflects the behavior of the residential users, and a proper characterization of their water use habits is vital for the hydraulic system modeling. This study presents a stochastic approach for the characterization of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water and the city: exploring links between urban growth and water demand management

    Urban water management is currently understood as a socio-technical problem, including both technologies and engineering interventions as well as socioeconomic dimensions and contexts vis-à-vis both end users and institutions. In this framework, perhaps the most important driver of urban water demand, at the intersection between engineering, social and economic domains, is urban growth. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Estimating residential water demand in the absence of volumetric water pricing

    Rapid population growth has significantly increased the magnitude of water shortages in California. Although water shortages already exist, some of the state's utility systems are still not providing their residents with financial incentives for water conservation. Instead of using water meters to charge households according to their actual water usage, they are charging a flat fee for unlimited ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Efficient water conservation in agriculture for growing urban water demands in Jordan

    A significant worldwide challenge is to increase the food supply to accommodate a population growing to 9,000,000,000 in the face of climate change. Per capita water supply in Jordan is among the world's lowest. Despite this scarcity, three-quarters of Jordan's water use is consumed by irrigated agriculture, while producing low economic values from additional water used compared to urban uses. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • What is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)?

    Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis is a measurement of the oxygen-depletion capacity of a water sample contaminated with organic waste matter. Specifically, it measures the equivalent amount of oxygen required to chemically oxidize organic compounds in water. Why Measure COD? COD is used as a general indicator of water quality and is an integral part of all water quality ...


    By MANTECH Inc.

  • Determining System demand case study

    The system demand is a function of water usage and location, expressed as gallon(s) per minute (gpm) and pound(s) per square inch gauge (psig), respectively. Usage or flow (gpm) can be determined using one of several methods (refer to Table IV.1.1 for typical demands): 1) Pressure required, as stated in pounds per square inch or PSI, is the pressure needed for the fixtures in the house or ...


    By Cycle Stop Valves, Inc.

  • Blending microbes demands gentle touch

    Environmental-restoration product manufacturer requires fast, uniform, gentle blending of powdered microbes, enzymes and nutrients The microbial formulations that United-Tech, Inc. produces are used to break down or detoxify a broad array of complex, often-toxic organic compounds, greasy spills and other contaminants in a variety of ...

  • Why is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) a useful parameter for drinking water analysis?

    Ask the Expert: COD Analysis for Drinking Water Question: Why is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) a useful parameter for drinking water analysis? Answer: At very basic level Chemical Oxygen ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Assessment of Environmental Water Demands (EWD) of Forests for Two Distinct Indian Ecosystems

    Abstract  Sustainable use of water and land resources requires that these scarce resources be appropriately allocated among various competing human activities. Worldwide, there is a realization now that sustainable river basin management should be accorded the highest priority, because it deals not only with technical, but also with ecological and socioeconomic aspects, and thus calls for a ...


  • Examining the effectiveness of residential water demand-side management policies in Israel

    Increasing global water shortage is enhancing the need for water management policies, such as water demand policies. This study presents the main water demand-side management policies implemented in Israel, designed to reduce water demand in the urban sector, and subsequently examines their effectiveness by an econometric model, based on residential water consumption data. The main findings ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • New directions in understanding household water demand: a practices perspective

    Understanding the nature of current household water use is important for forecasting future demand and for designing effective water efficiency interventions. This paper argues that to develop this understanding further it is necessary to shift away from the current focus on sociodemographic characteristics as predictors of litres used towards the everyday practices of household members through ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Socio–environmental factors affecting water demand in discrete aboriginal communities in Australia

    Water use is a complex function of socioeconomic conditions and climatic factors. This paper considers the socio–economic and physical factors that need to be considered during the design of water supply systems to ensure appropriate supply systems are developed and local needs are met. Data was obtained for remote Indigenous communities located in the Northern Territory, Australia. Information ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Linking water consumption smart metering with census data to improve demand management

    This study uses high-frequency water consumption data from 311 smart meters to link consumption with census data. For this purpose a well-established procedure was adopted. Results include the identification of the socio-demographic profiles associated to low, medium, medium-high and high water consumption groups and distinct daily consumption patterns in terms of the period of the day with ...


    By IWA Publishing

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