water demand Articles

  • The Benefits of an Integrated Air and Water Pollution Control Partner

    Although there has been substantial progress during the past several decades in reducing pollution, the EPA, other federal agencies and local governments continue to add and revise requirements and standards, making compliance a challenge for the industrial sector. These companies also face increasing public pressure not just to meet but to exceed pollution control standards, as studies continue ...

  • Ask the Expert: Oil Analysis in Power Generation

    Uptime is one of the key considerations for all power generators. Electricity supply must equal demand at all times. Downtime, especially unplanned downtime, is very difficult to deal with and can be quite costly. Fortunately condition based monitoring can go a long way towards preventing unscheduled downtime and achieving ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Demand management in urban water supply

    Since the 1930s, the drinking water supply of the Rabat-Casablanca coastal area has depended on water transfers from groundwater, from Maamora, and surface water, from the Bou Regreg Basin. Assessments carried out during the 1980s, based on patterns of water use at that time, showed that by 2010, transfers ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hourly water demand forecasting for micro water grids

    Many countries have problems related to water scarcity and are thus seeking to promote greater water efficiency. A micro water grid (MWG) is a high-efficiency water management system that integrates information and communication technologies (ICT) for the water distribution systems in individual buildings. More accurate forecasting of hourly water demand is necessary if these systems are to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Highest Demands on the Fitting Technology

    Protecting our environment requires sophisticated plant and process technology. Thus, the requirements of the planners and operators of systems for water technology to the reliability and reliability of the fittings are used. In addition, planners, plant constructors, as well as the operators in the selection of the valves oriented from an economic point of view increasingly oriented to ...


    By Adamant Valves

  • Price elasticity of residential water demand in California

    This study used meta-analysis to assess the influence of price/price structures on residential water demand in two selected urban areas in California: East Los Angeles and South San Francisco. Monthly usage data for the years 2002–2011 were utilized to determine and compare price elasticities for periods when uniform and tiered rates were charged using fixed effects panel regression and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A stochastic model for daily residential water demand

    Residential water demand is a random variable which influences greatly the performance of municipal water distribution systems (WDSs). The water request at network nodes reflects the behavior of the residential users, and a proper characterization of their water use habits is vital for the hydraulic system modeling. This study presents a stochastic approach for the characterization of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Adaptable urban water demand prediction system

    In this work, identification of 24-hours-ahead water demand prediction model based on historical water demand data is considered. As part of the identification procedure, the input variable selection algorithm based on partial mutual information is implemented. It is shown that meteorological data on a daily basis are not relevant for the water demand prediction in the sense of partial mutual ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of chemical oxygen demand to drinking water

    “This study investigated the use of a photoelectrochemical chemical oxygen demand (peCOD) analyzer for the detection of model organic compounds and natural organic matter (NOM) from four drinking water treatment plants in Nova Scotia, Canada. Most model organic compounds showed ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Efficient water conservation in agriculture for growing urban water demands in Jordan

    A significant worldwide challenge is to increase the food supply to accommodate a population growing to 9,000,000,000 in the face of climate change. Per capita water supply in Jordan is among the world's lowest. Despite this scarcity, three-quarters of Jordan's water use is consumed by irrigated agriculture, while producing low economic values from additional water used compared to urban uses. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Blending microbes demands gentle touch

    Environmental-restoration product manufacturer requires fast, uniform, gentle blending of powdered microbes, enzymes and nutrients The microbial formulations that United-Tech, Inc. produces are used to break down or detoxify a broad array of complex, often-toxic organic compounds, greasy spills and other contaminants in a variety of ...

  • Water and the city: exploring links between urban growth and water demand management

    Urban water management is currently understood as a socio-technical problem, including both technologies and engineering interventions as well as socioeconomic dimensions and contexts vis-à-vis both end users and institutions. In this framework, perhaps the most important driver of urban water demand, at the intersection between engineering, social and economic domains, is urban growth. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Estimating residential water demand in the absence of volumetric water pricing

    Rapid population growth has significantly increased the magnitude of water shortages in California. Although water shortages already exist, some of the state's utility systems are still not providing their residents with financial incentives for water conservation. Instead of using water meters to charge households according to their actual water usage, they are charging a flat fee for unlimited ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • What is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)?

    Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis is a measurement of the oxygen-depletion capacity of a water sample contaminated with organic waste matter. Specifically, it measures the equivalent amount of oxygen required to chemically oxidize organic compounds in water. Why Measure COD? COD is used as a general indicator of water quality and is an integral part of all water quality ...


    By MANTECH Inc.

  • Determining System demand case study

    The system demand is a function of water usage and location, expressed as gallon(s) per minute (gpm) and pound(s) per square inch gauge (psig), respectively. Usage or flow (gpm) can be determined using one of several methods (refer to Table IV.1.1 for typical demands): 1) Pressure required, as stated in pounds per square inch or PSI, is the pressure needed for the fixtures in the house or ...


    By Cycle Stop Valves, Inc.

  • Generation of synthetic cross-correlated water demand time series

    This paper presents a procedure for generating synthetic district-level series of hourly water demand coefficients cross-correlated in space (between districts) and time. The procedure consists of two steps: (1) generation of hourly water demand coefficients which respect, for each hour of the day, pre-assigned means and variances; and (2) introduction of the cross-correlation at different time ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Household demand for improved water supply services in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia

    With population growth and urbanization, demand for improved water services has been growing. It is imperative therefore to examine different factors that influence demand for improved water services and the resultant welfare changes. Using cross-sectional household survey data collected through structured questionnaire from ten administrative units in Mekelle City, we estimate household ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Five variants of a procedure for spatial aggregation of synthetic water demand time series

    A comparison of five variants of a procedure for spatial aggregation of synthetic water demand time series is presented. This procedure allows for the spatial aggregation of hourly synthetic water demand time series preserving mean and variance at user level in such a way that the statistics of the spatially aggregated time series are reproduced (mean, variance, lag-1 temporal correlation, lag-1 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A fast approach for multiobjective design of water distribution networks under demand uncertainty

    Water distribution system (WDS) design has received much attention lately from the point of view of uncertainties. Designers are generally interested in the Pareto optimal cost-robustness trade off curve. This paper aims to find a solution to the multiobjective problem in a computationally time-efficient way in comparison to previous methods from the literature. A parameter q, which is linked to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hierarchical prediction of industrial water demand based on refined Laspeyres decomposition analysis

    A recent study decomposed the changes in industrial water use into three hierarchies (output, technology, and structure) using a refined Laspeyres decomposition model, and found monotonous and exclusive trends in the output and technology hierarchies. Based on that research, this study proposes a hierarchical prediction approach to forecast future industrial water demand. Three water demand ...


    By IWA Publishing

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