water distribution Articles

  • Water Distribution System Audit

    In April 2007, a site survey of a spa outside of Paris, France, was jointly performed by LuminUltra Technologies Ltd. and AQUA-tools. The spa utilizes untreated mineral water (from ground wells) in its daily operation. The source water is distributed to 40+ stations for therapeutic purposes. One week prior to the site audit, two stations had tested positive for pathogenic organisms in the ...


    By LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.

  • Hybrid metaheuristics for multi-objective design of water distribution systems

    Multi-objective design of Water Distribution Systems (WDSs) has received considerable attention in the past. Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are popular in tackling this problem due to their ability to approach the true Pareto-optimal front (PF) in a single run. Recently, several hybrid metaheuristics based on MOEAs have been proposed and validated on test problems. Among these ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Flexible investment planning for water distribution networks

    The present work focuses on the planning of water distribution networks (WDNs). The research proposes an innovative strategy which aims at helping water managers formulate flexible investment plans while allowing for adaptive management under the increasing unawareness of medium–long term planning. This innovative strategy differs from existing strategies accounting for flexibility in WDN ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Using real options for an eco-friendly design of water distribution systems

    This paper presents a real options approach to handling uncertainties associated with the long-term planning of water distribution system development. Furthermore, carbon emissions associated with the installation and operation of water distribution networks are considered. These emissions are computed by taking an embodied energy approach to the different materials used in water networks. A ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessment of metrics for resilient design of water distribution networks

    Water distribution networks (WDNs) play a crucial role in the well-being of human populations and economic prosperity. It is essential that they cope with abnormal operating conditions and recover functionality quickly. Traditionally, WDNs are designed using cost and reliability objectives, but there is a lack of consensus on the definition and quantification of reliability which typically is a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A history of water distribution systems and their optimisation

    Water distribution systems have a very long and rich history dating back to the third millennium B.C. Advances in water supply and distribution were followed in parallel by discoveries and inventions in other related fields. Therefore, it is the aim of this paper to review both the history of water distribution systems and those related fields in order to present a coherent summary of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The importance of the minimum path criterion in the design of water distribution networks

    This paper explores the relationship between the minimum cost design of water distribution networks (WDNs) and the minimum water path criterion (MWPC), according to which the water entering the network through the source nodes should cover the shortest possible paths before being delivered to users. To this end, a three-step linear algorithm for WDN design based on the MWPC and set up in the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Multi-objective optimisation of the operation of a water distribution network

    The aim of the present paper was to move water through a reservoir network in such a way as to meet consumer demands and level constraints, minimise the cost of electricity, and minimise the loss of chlorine. This was to be achieved by choosing the switching intervals of reservoir inlet pumps and valves, at the same time complying with the allowed minimum interval size of each device. Switching ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Extending the global gradient algorithm to unsteady flow extended period simulations of water distribution systems

    This paper introduces an extension of the Global Gradient Algorithm (GGA) to directly solve unsteady flow problems arising from the presence of variable head water storage devices, such as tanks, in Extended Period Simulations (EPS) of looped water distribution networks (WDN). Such a modification of the original algorithm was motivated by the need to overcome oscillations and instabilities ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Division method for water distribution networks in hilly areas

    Water distribution systems in hilly areas are always divided into several zones due to the undulating terrain. The present approach of dividing water distribution systems lacks an assessment index and is characterized by a low degree of automation. With the building of a mathematical model, this paper introduces two indicators – pressure limitation and pressure variation – to enable the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water distribution network simulation by optimization approaches

    When a fire-flow condition occurs and a nodal demand is excessive or when a pipe breaks, a water distribution system (WDS) may temporarily become deficient and unable to satisfy all nodal demands. Thus, estimation of the influences of failure conditions on the network is needed. A method for analyzing the hydraulic condition of the network in such a situation is proposed. The method, which is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Review of rehabilitation strategies for water distribution pipes

    Effective rehabilitation strategies for water pipes play a very important role in both sustaining the reliability of water distribution systems and reducing costs. Pipe breakage prediction models provide a platform for effective rehabilitation strategies. The strength of the rehabilitation strategies is just an extension to those predictive models. There are different techniques and methods for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Multi-objective design of water distribution systems based on the fuzzy reliability index

    This paper reports the application of a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to the design of water distribution systems. The objective functions are the minimization of the capital costs and the maximization of the hydraulic reliability of the network so as to identify the tradeoff between cost and reliability. Furthermore, a new deterministic reliability index named fuzzy reliability index ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Component-holistic condition assessment of water distribution networks

    The work presented herein presents an expanded methodology for imprinting the condition of an urban water distribution network (WDN). Even though the majority of past research efforts related to WDNs deal with water mains (WMs), only a small part of the research studies have considered house connections (HCs) in the analysis and very few researchers have examined how the failure of pipe ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • New indices for reliability assessment of water distribution networks

    This paper presents new indices to evaluate the reliability of water distribution networks (WDNs) usable in the design, planning and management of these networks. Since the pressure-driven analysis (PDA) of WDNs produces more accurate results than the demand-driven analysis, the new indices are proposed based on the PDA. In the proposed measures, nodal pressures, nodal available discharges and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Analysis of flushing-path effects in water-distribution networks

    The unidirectional and conventional flushing methods are compared in this study and the water amount and flow velocity at junctions within an EPANET water distribution network are compared. In the unidirectional method, the necessary flow and water pressure for the minimum flow velocity for flushing become greater when pipe diameter exceeds a certain value. Therefore, the maximum length of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Uncertainty in the analysis of urban water supply and distribution systems

    Conventionally, the design of urban water supply and distribution systems is based on the assumption that all the involved parameters are known a priori and remain unaltered throughout the life cycle of the system. However, significant uncertainties do appear during the analysis and design of these systems, such as the equivalent pipe roughness and the actual internal diameters of the pipes. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Effects of Intermittent Supply on Water Distribution Networks

    The world’s population is increasing at a tremendous rate, the world’s renewable water resources are reducing rapidly, the gap between supply and demand is widening with urbanisation and climate change making it even wider. This paper reviews how the Water Board of Lemesos, Cyprus, a water utility with a proven history of managing extremely well its distribution network, was forced ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A model to simulate leakage through joints in water distribution systems

    The water loss is a phenomenon frequently observed within water distribution systems. A considerable part of water losses occurs either because of the incorrect assembly of joints or because of the fatigue and ageing of the material used to ensure a watertight seal. Moreover, such a leakage is very difficult to detect and to assess. In this work, we present a novel formulation for modelling the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Comparison of the robustness-based optimal designs of water distribution systems in three different formulations

    Robustness is generally defined as a system's ability to stay within satisfactory bounds against variations in system factors. Recently, robustness has been indicated to be a useful objective function for the optimal design of water distribution systems (WDSs). While various formulations are possible to represent WDS robustness, few efforts have been made to compare the performances of ...


    By IWA Publishing

Need help finding the right suppliers? Try XPRT Sourcing. Let the XPRTs do the work for you