water distribution Articles

  • Transformational adaptation – when climate change means business as usual is no longer possible

    1. A lesson from the past Deep in the central Sahara, a crumbling mud-brick town sits at the edge of a dry lake bed. This is the medieval town of Germa, in southwestern Libya, one of a string of settlements along the Wadi al-Ajal, a valley defined by the towering dunes of the Ubari Sand Sea to the north, and the black cliffs of the Messak Settafet plateau to the south. Germa is romantic ...


    By Garama 3C Ltd

  • The Clog Blog

    Clogging and over pressuring are definitely problematic for Liquid Chromatography columns. Back in 2005 John Dolan’s sage advice to chromatographers to make an LC column last forever was simple, “Never open the box!” As John pointed out, this is not practical and I have to agree. But as an LC column manufacturer I have seen remarks from customers regarding clogging as though it ...


    By Restek Corporation

  • The Next Generation of Level Control

    Water is an essential resource for everyday life, and thus having a way to store and distribute water is of critical importance. Water storage tanks have been designed to compensate for varying water demands during high and low ...


    By Singer Valve Inc.

  • What Is Zero Liquid Discharge and How Does It Work?

    Not every industrial facility that produces wastewater will require zero liquid discharge (ZLD). It is usually looked to as a last resort because it can be a complex process that requires a high initial investment. If a facility is located on a site that has severe water scarcity issues and/or astronomical discharge fees, it might be ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Water Distribution System Audit

    In April 2007, a site survey of a spa outside of Paris, France, was jointly performed by LuminUltra Technologies Ltd. and AQUA-tools. The spa utilizes untreated mineral water (from ground wells) in its daily operation. The source water is distributed to 40+ stations for therapeutic purposes. One week prior to the site audit, two stations had tested positive for pathogenic organisms in the ...


    By LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.

  • The benefits of monitoring compressed air

    Compressed air is used in many manufacturing processes for many different reasons, from the actuation and control of pneumatic valves and cylinders to the operation of process machinery and tooling. It can also be used as a transport medium for bulk materials or as a purge gas. For all its uses it is nonetheless expensive. This is why, through detailed monitoring, a business can enjoy the ...


    By Contrec Europe Limited

  • Low energy mixing to optimize anaerobic digestion at the Kitchener WWTP

    The existing Kitchener Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) is a conventional secondary treatment facility, with a rated capacity of 122,745 mVd. The plant is comprised of two separate secondary treatment plants (Plant 1 and Plant 2) served by a common headworks facilities and primary clarifier facilities. Plant 1 was constructed in the early 1960s and Plant 2 was constructed in the mid-1970s. Both ...

  • A history of water distribution systems and their optimisation

    Water distribution systems have a very long and rich history dating back to the third millennium B.C. Advances in water supply and distribution were followed in parallel by discoveries and inventions in other related fields. Therefore, it is the aim of this paper to review both the history of water distribution systems and those related fields in order to present a coherent summary of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water Distribution System Security Monitoring

    A water security instrument essentially needs to be able to detect potential contaminants in drinking water. Since a significant number of potential chemical contaminants are organic in nature, a water security monitoring instrument that can detect organic matter in water is perfect for this application. Real Tech has developed an instrument specifically designed for water security ...


    By Real Tech Inc.

  • Current Trends in Modelling Water Distribution Systems

    Untitled Document Hydraulic Modelling is emerging from the infrastructure planning offices of our water utilities, where it continues to play a vital role in optimising capital investment projects, to take a ...


    By Innovyze

  • Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, monitor and mitigate water losses in water transmission and distribution systems. One of the causes of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Effects of Intermittent Supply on Water Distribution Networks

    The world’s population is increasing at a tremendous rate, the world’s renewable water resources are reducing rapidly, the gap between supply and demand is widening with urbanisation and climate change making it even wider. This paper reviews how the Water Board of Lemesos, Cyprus, a water utility with a proven history of managing extremely well its distribution network, was forced ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Multi-objective optimisation of the operation of a water distribution network

    The aim of the present paper was to move water through a reservoir network in such a way as to meet consumer demands and level constraints, minimise the cost of electricity, and minimise the loss of chlorine. This was to be achieved by choosing the switching intervals of reservoir inlet pumps and valves, at the same time complying with the allowed minimum interval size of each device. Switching ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of unidirectional flushing in water distribution pipes

    In this study unidirectional flushing (UDF) was conducted to improve the effectiveness of deposit removal from internal pipe walls and to provide information on pipe networks to enable operators to implement flushing in field. Four ductile cast iron pipes with epoxy-lined and cement-lined were selected for the practice of UDF. Water pressure was measured using a data logger equipped with a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Study on failure rate analysis for water distribution pipelines

    Many of the waterworks facilities in Japan were constructed during the rapid economic growth period. Today, the deterioration and renovation of these aged facilities have become a pressing issue. There are approximately 600,000 km worth of water pipelines laid out across Japan, accounting for about 70% of the nation's water-related assets (totalling ¥40 trillion). To provide water that is safe to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water distribution network simulation by optimization approaches

    When a fire-flow condition occurs and a nodal demand is excessive or when a pipe breaks, a water distribution system (WDS) may temporarily become deficient and unable to satisfy all nodal demands. Thus, estimation of the influences of failure conditions on the network is needed. A method for analyzing the hydraulic condition of the network in such a situation is proposed. The method, which is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorate formation in water distribution systems: a modeling study

    Chlorine-based disinfection agents are known to favor the production of disinfection by-products (DBPs), whose concentrations are restricted by international guidelines to ensure a safe consumption of drinking water. Hence, it is important to understand the behavior of DBPs within water distribution networks (WDNs) to avoid users' exposure to concentrations higher than guideline values. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Automated parameter optimization of a water distribution system

    The hydraulic model EPANET was applied and calibrated for the water distribution system (WDS) of La Sirena, Colombia. The Parameter ESTimator (PEST) was used for parameter optimization and sensitivity analysis. Observation data included levels at water storage tanks and pressures at monitoring nodes. Adjustable parameters were grouped into different classes according to two different scenarios ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Division method for water distribution networks in hilly areas

    Water distribution systems in hilly areas are always divided into several zones due to the undulating terrain. The present approach of dividing water distribution systems lacks an assessment index and is characterized by a low degree of automation. With the building of a mathematical model, this paper introduces two indicators – pressure limitation and pressure variation – to enable the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effective distribution of edible oils

    Edible oil was injected at five sites to promote reductive dechlorination. The edible oil was injected as a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) or as an emulsion of oil, an emulsifier, and water. At Dover Air Force Base, injection of the emulsion into a barrier resulted in greater distribution of the total organic carbon (TOC) and more rapid dechlorination than direct injection of the edible oil into ...


    By Terra Systems, Inc. (TSI)

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