water distribution hydraulic Articles

  • Influence of cavitation phenomenon on the hydraulic behavior of leaks in water distribution systems

    This paper examines the hydraulic behavior of leakage from water distribution systems under condition of cavitation. For this purpose, an experimental model featuring small (i.e., a fraction of a millimeter) orifice openings was designed and built to simulate idealized cracks in defective pipes. During the tests, water was allowed to flow through the cracks at controlled pressures during ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Multi-objective optimization for conjunctive placement of hydraulic and water quality sensors in water distribution systems

    Near real-time continuous monitoring systems have been proposed as a promising approach for enhancing drinking water utilities detect and respond efficiently to threats on water distribution systems. Water quality sensors are aimed at revealing contamination intrusions, while hydraulic pressure and flow sensors are utilized for estimating the hydraulic system state. To date optimization models ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A history of water distribution systems and their optimisation

    Water distribution systems have a very long and rich history dating back to the third millennium B.C. Advances in water supply and distribution were followed in parallel by discoveries and inventions in other related fields. Therefore, it is the aim of this paper to review both the history of water distribution systems and those related fields in order to present a coherent summary of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Practical evaluation of inorganic contaminant presence in a drinking water distribution system after hydraulic disturbance

    The accumulation of loose deposits in a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) is a potential risk for water quality. In this work, hydraulic disturbance was simulated in different areas of a large DWDS. The water quality features before and after the disturbance were compared, and the solid deposits captured from different experimental sites were characterized. The results showed that the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Tracer study to verify hydraulic limits and determine water residence times in a distribution system: Part I

    This study introduces a methodology for assessing the residence times of drinking water in distribution systems using a tracer. The injection of a tracer followed by an intensive sampling campaign was used to evaluate the residence times of water in Quebec City's main system, which is supplied by the St Charles River. Samples were also analysed to determine the hardness and conductivity ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water distribution network simulation by optimization approaches

    When a fire-flow condition occurs and a nodal demand is excessive or when a pipe breaks, a water distribution system (WDS) may temporarily become deficient and unable to satisfy all nodal demands. Thus, estimation of the influences of failure conditions on the network is needed. A method for analyzing the hydraulic condition of the network in such a situation is proposed. The method, which is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Automated parameter optimization of a water distribution system

    The hydraulic model EPANET was applied and calibrated for the water distribution system (WDS) of La Sirena, Colombia. The Parameter ESTimator (PEST) was used for parameter optimization and sensitivity analysis. Observation data included levels at water storage tanks and pressures at monitoring nodes. Adjustable parameters were grouped into different classes according to two different scenarios ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • New indices for reliability assessment of water distribution networks

    This paper presents new indices to evaluate the reliability of water distribution networks (WDNs) usable in the design, planning and management of these networks. Since the pressure-driven analysis (PDA) of WDNs produces more accurate results than the demand-driven analysis, the new indices are proposed based on the PDA. In the proposed measures, nodal pressures, nodal available discharges and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Adaptive water distribution networks with dynamically reconfigurable topology

    This paper presents a novel concept of adaptive water distribution networks with dynamically reconfigurable topology for optimal pressure control, leakage management and improved system resilience. The implementation of District Meter Areas (DMAs) has greatly assisted water utilities in reducing leakage. DMAs segregate water networks into small areas, the flow in and out of each area is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, monitor and mitigate water losses in water transmission and distribution systems. One of the causes of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A GIS-based water distribution model for Zhengzhou city, China

    Many water companies in China are developing GIS as a computer-based tool, for mapping and analyzing objects and events that happen on a water distribution network. However, only a few companies have taken a further step to develop a hydraulic model based on GIS, and Zhengzhou Water Supply Corporation is one of them. The WaterGEMS V8 XM from Bentley is used to develop the hydraulic model for the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water distribution model for decision-making with updatable data links

    From February 2011 to December 2012, the Tallinn Water Company, AS Tallinna Vesi (ASTV), aimed at improving the previous hydraulic model creation procedures so that the model can be operatively updated through the available geographic information system, client information system (Navision), supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA). The goal of the project was to analyse various ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Online simplification of water distribution network models for optimal scheduling

    This paper presents an implementation of an extended simplification algorithm of water distribution network models for the purpose of inclusion in the online optimisation strategy for energy and leakage management in water distribution systems. Whereas the previously proposed reduced model represented accurately the original hydraulic water network characteristics, the energy distribution in the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water distribution system model calibration under uncertainty environments

    The calibration process of water distribution system models allows for accurate and reliable hydraulic analysis results. Thus, calibration is of utmost importance if adequate operation and maintenance model-based procedures are sought. However, in emerging economies, there is a series of factors that make it more difficult to construct accurate models, including very poor information management, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Pressure Control for Leakage Minimisation in Water Distribution Systems Management

    A model to support decision systems regarding the quantification, location and opening adjustment of control valves in a network system, with the main objective to minimise pressures and consequently leakage levels is developed. This research work aims at a solution that allows simultaneously optimising the number of valves and its location, as well as valves opening adjustments for simulation in ...


    By Springer

  • The role of balancing tanks in optimal design of water distribution networks

    Optimisation and reliability assessment of water distribution networks are complicated processes. Most of the research focuses only on the pipes without considering other network components, such as tanks. Despite the benefits that the tanks may bring, they are usually omitted in the optimisation process or in reliability considerations. Various indices from the literature that describe network ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Optimization techniques for leakage management in urban water distribution networks

    Reduction of leakages in water distribution systems (WDSs) is one of the major concerns for water industries. This paper presents a leakage reduction technique using pressure management by optimizing the water level in storage tanks, along with optimized control and localization of pressure-reducing valves (PRVs) in WDSs. A new mathematical tank and pump simulation algorithm is presented for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water distribution network calibration using enhanced GGA and topological analysis

    The calibration of hydraulic models of water distribution networks (WDN) is of preeminent importance for their analysis and management. It is usually achieved by solving a constrained optimization problem based on some priors on decision variables and the demand-driven simulation of the entire network, given the observations of some hydraulic status variables (i.e. typically nodal heads and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Optimization of water distribution system by split pipe method: a rule of thumb

    This research work intends to develop a thumb rule to find a suitable location for the split pipe to get the optimal solution with less effort. Furthermore, the equivalent pipe concept was applied to find the exact lengths of the split diameters. To achieve this objective, two schemes were selected: Anytown network (a literature network), and a planned and flat Central Park housing scheme in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Pumps as turbines (PATs) in water distribution networks affected by intermittent service

    A hydraulic model was developed in order to evaluate the potential energy recovery from the use of centrifugal pumps as turbines (PATs) in a water distribution network characterized by the presence of private tanks. The model integrates the Global Gradient Algorithm (GGA), with a pressure-driven model that permits a more realistic representation of the influence on the network behaviour of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

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