water distribution network Articles

  • Water distribution network simulation by optimization approaches

    When a fire-flow condition occurs and a nodal demand is excessive or when a pipe breaks, a water distribution system (WDS) may temporarily become deficient and unable to satisfy all nodal demands. Thus, estimation of the influences of failure conditions on the network is needed. A method for analyzing the hydraulic condition of the network in such a situation is proposed. The method, which is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Effects of Intermittent Supply on Water Distribution Networks

    The world’s population is increasing at a tremendous rate, the world’s renewable water resources are reducing rapidly, the gap between supply and demand is widening with urbanisation and climate change making it even wider. This paper reviews how the Water Board of Lemesos, Cyprus, a water utility with a proven history of managing extremely well its distribution network, was forced ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Multi-objective optimisation of the operation of a water distribution network

    The aim of the present paper was to move water through a reservoir network in such a way as to meet consumer demands and level constraints, minimise the cost of electricity, and minimise the loss of chlorine. This was to be achieved by choosing the switching intervals of reservoir inlet pumps and valves, at the same time complying with the allowed minimum interval size of each device. Switching ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Division method for water distribution networks in hilly areas

    Water distribution systems in hilly areas are always divided into several zones due to the undulating terrain. The present approach of dividing water distribution systems lacks an assessment index and is characterized by a low degree of automation. With the building of a mathematical model, this paper introduces two indicators – pressure limitation and pressure variation – to enable the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Analysis of flushing-path effects in water-distribution networks

    The unidirectional and conventional flushing methods are compared in this study and the water amount and flow velocity at junctions within an EPANET water distribution network are compared. In the unidirectional method, the necessary flow and water pressure for the minimum flow velocity for flushing become greater when pipe diameter exceeds a certain value. Therefore, the maximum length of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Adaptive water distribution networks with dynamically reconfigurable topology

    This paper presents a novel concept of adaptive water distribution networks with dynamically reconfigurable topology for optimal pressure control, leakage management and improved system resilience. The implementation of District Meter Areas (DMAs) has greatly assisted water utilities in reducing leakage. DMAs segregate water networks into small areas, the flow in and out of each area is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • New indices for reliability assessment of water distribution networks

    This paper presents new indices to evaluate the reliability of water distribution networks (WDNs) usable in the design, planning and management of these networks. Since the pressure-driven analysis (PDA) of WDNs produces more accurate results than the demand-driven analysis, the new indices are proposed based on the PDA. In the proposed measures, nodal pressures, nodal available discharges and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessment of metrics for resilient design of water distribution networks

    Water distribution networks (WDNs) play a crucial role in the well-being of human populations and economic prosperity. It is essential that they cope with abnormal operating conditions and recover functionality quickly. Traditionally, WDNs are designed using cost and reliability objectives, but there is a lack of consensus on the definition and quantification of reliability which typically is a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Spatial network generation tool for water distribution network design and performance analysis

    The research presented in this paper aims at the support tool for generation of multiple networks with preset or randomised properties. To explore particular phenomena, water distribution analysis may require a coherent set of cases. Readily available in the literature are simple synthetic networks used for benchmarking, either real-life cases that are too diverse in size and configuration. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Topological clustering as a tool for planning water quality monitoring in water distribution networks

    Topological clustering was explored as a tool for water supply utilities in preparation of monitoring and contamination contingency plans. A complex water distribution network model of Copenhagen, Denmark, was simplified by topological clustering into recognizable water movement patterns to: (1) identify steady clusters for a part of the network where an actual contamination has occurred; (2) ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Life-cycle assessment of common water main materials in water distribution networks

    This paper examines the economy-wide environmental impacts linked to the manufacturing of PVC and ductile iron (DI) pipes, steel tanks, and to the generation of electricity for pumping in water distribution network optimization. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to generate Pareto-optimal solutions of the benchmark ‘Anytown’ network expansion problem. Selected ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Vulnerability of complex critical systems: case water supply and distribution networks

    Management of complex, interdependent critical infrastructures demands systematic continuity evaluations and capability building for abnormal as well as normal conditions. The changing risk and threat environment creates new vulnerabilities that require an extensive approach to control weak points and support the undisturbed and reliable functions of critical infrastructures. The water ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Informal network utilisation and water distribution in two districts in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan

    Abstract: This paper analyses informal networks and their utilisation during a period of water scarcity in an upstream and a downstream district in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan. The evaluation is based on an organisational theory approach on informal networks. Communication patterns between farm managers, district water departments and district governors in a year with a sufficient amount ...


    By Taylor & Francis Group

  • Water distribution network calibration using enhanced GGA and topological analysis

    The calibration of hydraulic models of water distribution networks (WDN) is of preeminent importance for their analysis and management. It is usually achieved by solving a constrained optimization problem based on some priors on decision variables and the demand-driven simulation of the entire network, given the observations of some hydraulic status variables (i.e. typically nodal heads and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A new algorithm for real-time pressure control in water distribution networks

    This paper presents a new logic algorithm for real-time control of regulation valves in water distribution networks. This method entails identifying in real time the appropriate closure setting of regulation valves in order to reach and keep the desired piezometric height at the control node(s), by making use of measurements concerning both the piezometric height at the control node(s) and the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The influence of the existing network layout on water distribution system redesign analysis

    The methodologies usually adopted in water distribution system redesign problems consider the topology of the network as an input fixed datum; optimisation solely allowing for the duplication/substitution of existing components. In order to contribute to the identification of optimal solutions that may lead to a lower risk of failure to supply the required water, together with a lower redesign ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Cost optimization of water distribution networks by using artificial immune systems

    This study aims at the development of an optimization model based on artificial immune systems (AIS) to minimize cost designs of water distribution networks (WDNs). Clonal selection algorithm (Clonalg), a class of AIS, was used as an optimization technique in the model, and its mutation operation was modified to increase the diversity (search capability). EPANET, a widely known WDN simulator, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A genetic algorithm for demand pattern and leakage estimation in a water distribution network

    The sustainable management of water supply networks requires the control of physical pipe leakages, such as those due to junction obsolescence or pipe creeping. These leakages usually increase with the operating pressure, and their discharge is commonly assumed to scale with the power of the pressure. The same functional form is also employed to evaluate leakage occurring in the portion of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sensor placement for leak detection and location in water distribution networks

    The performance of a leak detection and location algorithm depends on the set of measurements that are available in the network. This work presents an optimization strategy that maximizes the leak diagnosability performance of the network. The goal is to characterize and determine a sensor configuration that guarantees a maximum degree of diagnosability while the sensor configuration cost ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Diminishing marginal returns for sensor networks in a water distribution system

    With increasing interest in the implementation/functionality of a contaminant warning system for water distribution systems, questions exist over the application to a real distribution system. A methodology is described to assess the impacts of changes in the numbers of sensors, on the time delay required to detect a contaminant intrusion event and to maximize sensor detection redundancy as ...


    By IWA Publishing

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