water distribution network Articles

  • Crumbling Concrete Water Networks Linked to Common Water Treatment Additive

    Concrete distribution and sewer networks are being corroded at an alarming rate partly because of a commonly used additive in the domestic drinking water and wastewater treatment process according to published reports in the journal Science. In countries throughout the world from industrialized nations like Australia and the USA to developing nations like Colombia, Ghana and the Philippines, the ...

  • New indices for reliability assessment of water distribution networks

    This paper presents new indices to evaluate the reliability of water distribution networks (WDNs) usable in the design, planning and management of these networks. Since the pressure-driven analysis (PDA) of WDNs produces more accurate results than the demand-driven analysis, the new indices are proposed based on the PDA. In the proposed measures, nodal pressures, nodal available discharges and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessment of metrics for resilient design of water distribution networks

    Water distribution networks (WDNs) play a crucial role in the well-being of human populations and economic prosperity. It is essential that they cope with abnormal operating conditions and recover functionality quickly. Traditionally, WDNs are designed using cost and reliability objectives, but there is a lack of consensus on the definition and quantification of reliability which typically is a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Analysis of flushing-path effects in water-distribution networks

    The unidirectional and conventional flushing methods are compared in this study and the water amount and flow velocity at junctions within an EPANET water distribution network are compared. In the unidirectional method, the necessary flow and water pressure for the minimum flow velocity for flushing become greater when pipe diameter exceeds a certain value. Therefore, the maximum length of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Adaptive water distribution networks with dynamically reconfigurable topology

    This paper presents a novel concept of adaptive water distribution networks with dynamically reconfigurable topology for optimal pressure control, leakage management and improved system resilience. The implementation of District Meter Areas (DMAs) has greatly assisted water utilities in reducing leakage. DMAs segregate water networks into small areas, the flow in and out of each area is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Multi-objective optimisation of the operation of a water distribution network

    The aim of the present paper was to move water through a reservoir network in such a way as to meet consumer demands and level constraints, minimise the cost of electricity, and minimise the loss of chlorine. This was to be achieved by choosing the switching intervals of reservoir inlet pumps and valves, at the same time complying with the allowed minimum interval size of each device. Switching ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Effects of Intermittent Supply on Water Distribution Networks

    The world’s population is increasing at a tremendous rate, the world’s renewable water resources are reducing rapidly, the gap between supply and demand is widening with urbanisation and climate change making it even wider. This paper reviews how the Water Board of Lemesos, Cyprus, a water utility with a proven history of managing extremely well its distribution network, was forced ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water distribution network simulation by optimization approaches

    When a fire-flow condition occurs and a nodal demand is excessive or when a pipe breaks, a water distribution system (WDS) may temporarily become deficient and unable to satisfy all nodal demands. Thus, estimation of the influences of failure conditions on the network is needed. A method for analyzing the hydraulic condition of the network in such a situation is proposed. The method, which is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Division method for water distribution networks in hilly areas

    Water distribution systems in hilly areas are always divided into several zones due to the undulating terrain. The present approach of dividing water distribution systems lacks an assessment index and is characterized by a low degree of automation. With the building of a mathematical model, this paper introduces two indicators – pressure limitation and pressure variation – to enable the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Spatial network generation tool for water distribution network design and performance analysis

    The research presented in this paper aims at the support tool for generation of multiple networks with preset or randomised properties. To explore particular phenomena, water distribution analysis may require a coherent set of cases. Readily available in the literature are simple synthetic networks used for benchmarking, either real-life cases that are too diverse in size and configuration. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Life-cycle assessment of common water main materials in water distribution networks

    This paper examines the economy-wide environmental impacts linked to the manufacturing of PVC and ductile iron (DI) pipes, steel tanks, and to the generation of electricity for pumping in water distribution network optimization. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to generate Pareto-optimal solutions of the benchmark ‘Anytown’ network expansion problem. Selected ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Topological clustering as a tool for planning water quality monitoring in water distribution networks

    Topological clustering was explored as a tool for water supply utilities in preparation of monitoring and contamination contingency plans. A complex water distribution network model of Copenhagen, Denmark, was simplified by topological clustering into recognizable water movement patterns to: (1) identify steady clusters for a part of the network where an actual contamination has occurred; (2) ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Contamination accidents in China's drinking water distribution networks: status and countermeasures

    In recent years, frequent urban drinking water contamination accidents have caused significant impacts on society in China. However, emergency measures are primarily realized as management policies lack systematic technologies especially for those within-network contamination accidents. The aim of this paper is to perform analysis on cases of contaminant accidents that occurred in water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Development of central force optimization for pipe-sizing of water distribution networks

    Due to the economic crisis and water scarcity happening in recent years, many researchers have focused on the water distribution network optimization problem. On this specified subject, all recent research has applied stochastic meta-heuristic algorithms to solve these sets of problems. In this study, the application of a novel deterministic physically inspired heuristic algorithm for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Energy efficiency in water distribution systems - A path to an ideal network - AGS experience

    Water utilities’ responsibility to deliver quality and reliable service under a sustainable basis requires an increasingly efficient management and therefore an asset management strategy that ensures high levels of service, safe and reliable drinking-water quality and an appropriate network performance. In Portugal, IAM gave a step forward with a recent Portuguese decree law (Decreto-Lei ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Practical application of the head dependent gradient method for water distribution networks

    Critical pressure-deficient operating conditions frequently occur in water distribution networks. Head driven analysis (HDA) of water distribution networks allows for the pressure-dependent nature of nodal flows and, therefore, yields the actual nodal flows and heads for both normal and subnormal pressure conditions. Hence, HDA simulation models are more practical than demand driven analysis ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A fast approach for multiobjective design of water distribution networks under demand uncertainty

    Water distribution system (WDS) design has received much attention lately from the point of view of uncertainties. Designers are generally interested in the Pareto optimal cost-robustness trade off curve. This paper aims to find a solution to the multiobjective problem in a computationally time-efficient way in comparison to previous methods from the literature. A parameter q, which is linked to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Experimental assessment of pressure–leakage relationship in a water distribution network

    The use of numerical simulations to improve the management of water distribution networks (WDNs) has dramatically increased in recent decades. Nevertheless, the modeling of leakages is still a major issue to face when setting up a model of a WDN. Because water losses increase at increasing pressure, they are usually modeled by assuming a leakage node behaves like an emitter. Unfortunately, a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Consequence management of chemical intrusion in water distribution networks under inexact scenarios

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Response Protocol Toolbox provides a list of recommendations on actions that may be taken to minimize the potential threats to public health following a contamination threat. This protocol comprises three steps: (1) detection of contaminant presence, (2) source identification and (3) consequence management. This paper intends to explore ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Online simplification of water distribution network models for optimal scheduling

    This paper presents an implementation of an extended simplification algorithm of water distribution network models for the purpose of inclusion in the online optimisation strategy for energy and leakage management in water distribution systems. Whereas the previously proposed reduced model represented accurately the original hydraulic water network characteristics, the energy distribution in the ...


    By IWA Publishing

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