water distribution pipe Articles

  • Application of unidirectional flushing in water distribution pipes

    In this study unidirectional flushing (UDF) was conducted to improve the effectiveness of deposit removal from internal pipe walls and to provide information on pipe networks to enable operators to implement flushing in field. Four ductile cast iron pipes with epoxy-lined and cement-lined were selected for the practice of UDF. Water pressure was measured using a data logger equipped with a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Review of rehabilitation strategies for water distribution pipes

    Effective rehabilitation strategies for water pipes play a very important role in both sustaining the reliability of water distribution systems and reducing costs. Pipe breakage prediction models provide a platform for effective rehabilitation strategies. The strength of the rehabilitation strategies is just an extension to those predictive models. There are different techniques and methods for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Scrubber Removes Grease and Particulates from Air Exhaust

    Operating Issue A food-industry leader in Alabama operates several pork-sausage cookers that exhaust over 4,000 ACFM of moisture and pork grease. The operator installed Electrostatic Precipitators (ESPs) to treat the exhaust but these systems performed poorly and generated high maintenance and operating costs. Additionally, these systems were antiquated and required significant capital ...


    By Pollution Systems

  • Optimal meter placement for pipe burst detection in water distribution systems

    Pipe bursts in water distribution systems (WDS) must be rapidly detected to minimize the loss of system functionality and recovery time. Pipe burst is the most common failure in WDS. It results in water loss out of the system, increased head losses, and low pressure at the customers' taps. Therefore, effective and efficient detection of pipe bursts can improve system resilience. To this end, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Optimization of water distribution system by split pipe method: a rule of thumb

    This research work intends to develop a thumb rule to find a suitable location for the split pipe to get the optimal solution with less effort. Furthermore, the equivalent pipe concept was applied to find the exact lengths of the split diameters. To achieve this objective, two schemes were selected: Anytown network (a literature network), and a planned and flat Central Park housing scheme in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Influence of porous media on intrusion rate into water distribution pipes

    Untreated water can intrude into water distribution systems through pipe leaks and cracks when negative pressure events occur inside drinking water pipelines. The orifice equation is typically used for calculation of intrusion flow rate, which ignores the impact of the soil surrounding the pipeline. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the effect of porous ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Development of central force optimization for pipe-sizing of water distribution networks

    Due to the economic crisis and water scarcity happening in recent years, many researchers have focused on the water distribution network optimization problem. On this specified subject, all recent research has applied stochastic meta-heuristic algorithms to solve these sets of problems. In this study, the application of a novel deterministic physically inspired heuristic algorithm for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Probabilistic modeling of cast iron water distribution pipe corrosion

    Due to the random nature of the corrosion process, stochastic approaches are more appropriate to mathematically represent the corrosion depths on metallic objects. Based on data from 202 pipes, a model was developed to compute the probability of finding maximal corrosion depth in a given interval of values for 150-mm cast iron water distribution pipes. Only the age of pipes was taken into ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Geostatistical techniques for approximate location of pipe burst events in water distribution systems

    This paper focusses on the customisation and further enhancement of the recently developed data-driven methodology for the automated near real-time detection of pipe bursts and other (e.g. sensor faults) events at the district metered area (DMA) level. Assuming the availability of pressure/flow data from an increased number of sensors deployed in a DMA, the aim is to: (i) overcome the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Pipe roughness calibration in water distribution systems using grey numbers

    This paper presents a procedure based on the use of grey numbers for the calibration (with uncertainty) of pipe roughness in water distribution systems. The pipe roughness uncertainty is represented through the grey number amplitude (or interval). The procedure is of a wholly general nature and can be applied for the calibration (with uncertainty) of other parameters or quantities, such as nodal ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of genetic programming to modeling pipe failures in water distribution systems

    The water loss from a water distribution system is a serious problem for many cities, which incurs enormous economic and social loss. However, the economic and human resource costs to exactly locate the leakage are extraordinarily high. Thus, reliable and robust pipe failure models are demanded to assess a pipe's propensity to fail. Beijing City was selected as the case study area and the pipe ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Mixing at double-Tee junctions with unequal pipe sizes in water distribution systems

    Pipe flow mixing with various solute concentrations and flow rates at pipe junctions is investigated. The degree of mixing affects contaminant spread in a water distribution system, and many studies have focused on mixing at the cross junctions; however, only a few have focused on double-Tee junctions of unequal pipe diameters. To investigate the solute mixing at such junctions, a series of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Distribution of microbial activity and specific microorganisms across sediment size fractions and pipe wall biofilm in a drinking water distribution system

    The aim of our study was to identify the dominant environmental niche (pipe wall and different sediment size fractions) in the distribution system for biological activity, Aeromonas and the occurrence of several microbial groups or specific opportunistic pathogens. The pipe wall and sediment fractions of three locations in a distribution system were sampled and different microbiological ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Characteristics of pipe-scale in the pipes of an urban drinking water distribution system in eastern China

    Pipes that carry drinking water have gradually aged. Events occurring with increasing frequency, such as substandard water quality in residential taps, red water, and black water, reveal the deterioration of the chemical stability of a drinking water distribution system (DWDS). Pipes in the DWDS serving City S, located in eastern China, were sampled to analyze the concentration and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biocorrosion in drinking water pipes

    Copper is widely used in drinking water distribution systems due to its relatively low cost and favorable mechanical properties. However, copper corrosion may generate copper concentrations exceeding the thresholds prescribed by international drinking water standards. In-situ measurements performed in an actual system found that the copper mass released under flowing water conditions (pipe ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • WaterNetGen: an EPANET extension for automatic water distribution network models generation and pipe sizing

    This paper focuses on the generation of synthetic models of water distribution networks (WDN). Models are widely used in many fields related with WDN planning and operation. Therefore, the main contribution of this work is to provide an automatic procedure to build models with the well-known EPANET tool in a manner that, with a small amount of input data and a few clicks, the user can build a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Thermally induced strains and stresses in cast iron water distribution pipes: an experimental investigation

    Full-scale tests have been carried out on lengths of unrestrained and restrained plain and jointed distribution pipe sections (∼4″ or ∼100 mm internal diameter) in order to investigate the strains and loads generated in cast iron water distribution mains as a result of temperature fluctuations. Tests on unrestrained sections enabled the coefficient of thermal expansion of the pipe material to be ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Improving the rapidity of responses to pipe burst in water distribution systems: a comparison of statistical process control methods

    A pipe burst is a major water distribution system failure. Water escapes the network through the break increasing the total flow entering the network. These higher flows, in turn, increase the head losses in pipes and result in lower water pressures at customer taps. This study focuses on burst detection by seeking to identify anomalies in net system demand, pipe flow rates, and nodal pressure ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water distribution network simulation by optimization approaches

    When a fire-flow condition occurs and a nodal demand is excessive or when a pipe breaks, a water distribution system (WDS) may temporarily become deficient and unable to satisfy all nodal demands. Thus, estimation of the influences of failure conditions on the network is needed. A method for analyzing the hydraulic condition of the network in such a situation is proposed. The method, which is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Division method for water distribution networks in hilly areas

    Water distribution systems in hilly areas are always divided into several zones due to the undulating terrain. The present approach of dividing water distribution systems lacks an assessment index and is characterized by a low degree of automation. With the building of a mathematical model, this paper introduces two indicators – pressure limitation and pressure variation – to enable the ...


    By IWA Publishing

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