water distribution system Articles

  • What is a wastewater treatment system and how does it work?

    For industrial companies producing wastewater as part of it’s process, some type of wastewater treatment system is usually necessary to ensure safety precautions and discharge regulations are met. The most appropriate wastewater treatment system will help the facility avoid harming the environment, human health, and a facility’s process or products (especially if the wastewater ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Water Distribution System Audit

    In April 2007, a site survey of a spa outside of Paris, France, was jointly performed by LuminUltra Technologies Ltd. and AQUA-tools. The spa utilizes untreated mineral water (from ground wells) in its daily operation. The source water is distributed to 40+ stations for therapeutic purposes. One week prior to the site audit, two stations had tested positive for pathogenic organisms in the ...


    By LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.

  • How a contract research lab advanced its polymer characterization capabilities

    Realizing the Advantages of Ultra-High-Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography Compared to GPC Intertek is a global provider of quality and safety services designed to help businesses improve products, assets and processes, overcome market constraints and reduce risks. From auditing and inspection, to testing, training, and certification, Intertek enables customers to meet end ...


    By Waters Corporation

  • Oil Sampling Best Practices (Part 2)

    Understanding Dynamic Particle Equilibrium in Closed Loop Systems Dynamic Equilibrium Condition (DEC) is defined as a steady state condition where the normal wear rate in a machine results in no net gain or loss of particles. ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Water Distribution System Security Monitoring

    A water security instrument essentially needs to be able to detect potential contaminants in drinking water. Since a significant number of potential chemical contaminants are organic in nature, a water security monitoring instrument that can detect organic matter in water is perfect for this application. Real Tech has developed an instrument specifically designed for water security ...


    By Real Tech Inc.

  • Landfill pumps for Gas well dewatering - Case Study

    AutoPumps Keep the Power On for Thousands of Florida Homes Waste Management's Springhill Regional Landfill near Campbellton, Florida generates "green" energy by extracting and burning the methane in landfill gas. Its $7 million landfill gas energy (LFGE) plant, with six large Caterpillar engines running 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, is capable of producing 4.8 million watts of power. ...


    By QED Environmental Systems

  • Los Angeles County WRRF Embraces Codigestion

    Technology to produce food waste slurry key to project implementation - and helps generators comply with California organics recycling mandates. The Sanitation Districts’ JWPCP in Carson (CA) treats an average of 280 million gallons/day of wastewater. One of the two anaerobic digestion tanks above has been used for codigestion, with the second serving as the control. Photos ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • A history of water distribution systems and their optimisation

    Water distribution systems have a very long and rich history dating back to the third millennium B.C. Advances in water supply and distribution were followed in parallel by discoveries and inventions in other related fields. Therefore, it is the aim of this paper to review both the history of water distribution systems and those related fields in order to present a coherent summary of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Current Trends in Modelling Water Distribution Systems

    Untitled Document Hydraulic Modelling is emerging from the infrastructure planning offices of our water utilities, where it continues to play a vital role in optimising capital investment projects, to take a ...


    By Innovyze

  • Automated parameter optimization of a water distribution system

    The hydraulic model EPANET was applied and calibrated for the water distribution system (WDS) of La Sirena, Colombia. The Parameter ESTimator (PEST) was used for parameter optimization and sensitivity analysis. Observation data included levels at water storage tanks and pressures at monitoring nodes. Adjustable parameters were grouped into different classes according to two different scenarios ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, monitor and mitigate water losses in water transmission and distribution systems. One of the causes of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorate formation in water distribution systems: a modeling study

    Chlorine-based disinfection agents are known to favor the production of disinfection by-products (DBPs), whose concentrations are restricted by international guidelines to ensure a safe consumption of drinking water. Hence, it is important to understand the behavior of DBPs within water distribution networks (WDNs) to avoid users' exposure to concentrations higher than guideline values. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Automated determination and evaluation of water losses in water distribution systems

    Using conventional methods and tools for determining detailed zonal water balances and performance indicators involves considerable efforts in manual data collection and processing. Hence, water balances mostly are determined for a whole network only. Unmetered components are often neglected or based on rough estimates. This article presents an approach to the automated determination of zonal ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reduction in water losses in water distribution systems using pressure reduction valves

    Water loss is a phenomenon frequently observed within water distribution systems (WDSs), that is considerably worsened by an excessive pressure throughout the network. As an alternative option to pipe replacement, the use of pumps working as turbines, throttle control valves (TCVs), or pressure reduction valves (PRVs) can be used to reduce leakage. For a preassigned number of these devices, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Early warning system to forecast maximum temperature in drinking water distribution systems

    Climate change poses new challenges in preventing the exceedance of the maximum allowed temperature in the drinking water distribution system (DWDS). The objective of this article is to evaluate the feasibility of forecasting the maximum temperature in the DWDS. Two options were analysed: (1) using the records of the last day as forecast for the coming 2 days and (2) using 2-day weather forecast ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Vulnerability of complex critical systems: case water supply and distribution networks

    Management of complex, interdependent critical infrastructures demands systematic continuity evaluations and capability building for abnormal as well as normal conditions. The changing risk and threat environment creates new vulnerabilities that require an extensive approach to control weak points and support the undisturbed and reliable functions of critical infrastructures. The water ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Pressure Control for Leakage Minimisation in Water Distribution Systems Management

    A model to support decision systems regarding the quantification, location and opening adjustment of control valves in a network system, with the main objective to minimise pressures and consequently leakage levels is developed. This research work aims at a solution that allows simultaneously optimising the number of valves and its location, as well as valves opening adjustments for simulation in ...


    By Springer

  • Methodology for Forensic Investigation of Potable Water Quality in Municipal Distribution Systems

    Abstract During routine regulatory potable water quality sampling in distribution systems related to the Total Coliform Rule, utilities can sometimes experience anomalous detections of total coliform bacteria and/or fecal coliform bacteria in the distribution system samples. Frequently, the regulatory-required retesting of the same sample locations reveals no detection of bacteria, and thus ...

  • Mixing at double-Tee junctions with unequal pipe sizes in water distribution systems

    Pipe flow mixing with various solute concentrations and flow rates at pipe junctions is investigated. The degree of mixing affects contaminant spread in a water distribution system, and many studies have focused on mixing at the cross junctions; however, only a few have focused on double-Tee junctions of unequal pipe diameters. To investigate the solute mixing at such junctions, a series of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • An integrated system dynamics – cellular automata model for distributed water-infrastructure planning

    Modern distributed water-aware technologies (including, for example, greywater recycling and rainwater harvesting) enable water reuse at the scale of household or neighbourhood. Nevertheless, even though these technologies are, in some cases, economically advantageous, they have a significant handicap compared to the centralized urban water management options: it is not easy to estimate a ...


    By IWA Publishing

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