water distribution system Articles

  • Water Distribution System Audit

    In April 2007, a site survey of a spa outside of Paris, France, was jointly performed by LuminUltra Technologies Ltd. and AQUA-tools. The spa utilizes untreated mineral water (from ground wells) in its daily operation. The source water is distributed to 40+ stations for therapeutic purposes. One week prior to the site audit, two stations had tested positive for pathogenic organisms in the ...


    By LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.

  • Water Distribution System Security Monitoring

    A water security instrument essentially needs to be able to detect potential contaminants in drinking water. Since a significant number of potential chemical contaminants are organic in nature, a water security monitoring instrument that can detect organic matter in water is perfect for this application. Real Tech has developed an instrument specifically designed for water security ...


    By Real Tech Inc.

  • A history of water distribution systems and their optimisation

    Water distribution systems have a very long and rich history dating back to the third millennium B.C. Advances in water supply and distribution were followed in parallel by discoveries and inventions in other related fields. Therefore, it is the aim of this paper to review both the history of water distribution systems and those related fields in order to present a coherent summary of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Safety vs. Environment Protection: Study Discovers Increasing Salt Levels in Lakes

    A recent study published by the US-American National Academy of Sciences revealed an increasing salt amount in form of chloride in rural and urban freshwater lakes around the American continent. The scientists believe, that mainly road salt distributed on icy roadways is to blame. Increasing salt levels threaten eco systems Road de-icing salt is blamed for rising salt levels in ...

  • Reducing Wasted Food In Tennessee

    About 15 percent of Tennessee households are food insecure, and almost 1.2 million tons of food are landfilled annually. The state is moving quickly to address both realities. It is increasingly apparent that food waste and food insecurity in the United States is a problem, and it has especially hit home in Tennessee. An estimated 15.1 percent of Tennessee households are food insecure, which ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Current Trends in Modelling Water Distribution Systems

    Untitled Document Hydraulic Modelling is emerging from the infrastructure planning offices of our water utilities, where it continues to play a vital role in optimising capital investment projects, to take a ...


    By Innovyze

  • Chlorate formation in water distribution systems: a modeling study

    Chlorine-based disinfection agents are known to favor the production of disinfection by-products (DBPs), whose concentrations are restricted by international guidelines to ensure a safe consumption of drinking water. Hence, it is important to understand the behavior of DBPs within water distribution networks (WDNs) to avoid users' exposure to concentrations higher than guideline values. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Automated parameter optimization of a water distribution system

    The hydraulic model EPANET was applied and calibrated for the water distribution system (WDS) of La Sirena, Colombia. The Parameter ESTimator (PEST) was used for parameter optimization and sensitivity analysis. Observation data included levels at water storage tanks and pressures at monitoring nodes. Adjustable parameters were grouped into different classes according to two different scenarios ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, monitor and mitigate water losses in water transmission and distribution systems. One of the causes of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Automated determination and evaluation of water losses in water distribution systems

    Using conventional methods and tools for determining detailed zonal water balances and performance indicators involves considerable efforts in manual data collection and processing. Hence, water balances mostly are determined for a whole network only. Unmetered components are often neglected or based on rough estimates. This article presents an approach to the automated determination of zonal ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Early warning system to forecast maximum temperature in drinking water distribution systems

    Climate change poses new challenges in preventing the exceedance of the maximum allowed temperature in the drinking water distribution system (DWDS). The objective of this article is to evaluate the feasibility of forecasting the maximum temperature in the DWDS. Two options were analysed: (1) using the records of the last day as forecast for the coming 2 days and (2) using 2-day weather forecast ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reduction in water losses in water distribution systems using pressure reduction valves

    Water loss is a phenomenon frequently observed within water distribution systems (WDSs), that is considerably worsened by an excessive pressure throughout the network. As an alternative option to pipe replacement, the use of pumps working as turbines, throttle control valves (TCVs), or pressure reduction valves (PRVs) can be used to reduce leakage. For a preassigned number of these devices, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Diminishing marginal returns for sensor networks in a water distribution system

    With increasing interest in the implementation/functionality of a contaminant warning system for water distribution systems, questions exist over the application to a real distribution system. A methodology is described to assess the impacts of changes in the numbers of sensors, on the time delay required to detect a contaminant intrusion event and to maximize sensor detection redundancy as ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Multi-objective design of water distribution systems based on the fuzzy reliability index

    This paper reports the application of a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to the design of water distribution systems. The objective functions are the minimization of the capital costs and the maximization of the hydraulic reliability of the network so as to identify the tradeoff between cost and reliability. Furthermore, a new deterministic reliability index named fuzzy reliability index ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Vulnerability of complex critical systems: case water supply and distribution networks

    Management of complex, interdependent critical infrastructures demands systematic continuity evaluations and capability building for abnormal as well as normal conditions. The changing risk and threat environment creates new vulnerabilities that require an extensive approach to control weak points and support the undisturbed and reliable functions of critical infrastructures. The water ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Haloacetic acid degradation by a biofilm in a simulated drinking water distribution system

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are disinfection by-products formed as a result of the reaction between chlorine and natural organic matter found in water. HAA concentrations have been observed to decrease at distribution system extremities. This decrease is associated with microbiological degradation by pipe wall biofilm. The objective of this study was to evaluate HAA degradation in a drinking water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Using real options for an eco-friendly design of water distribution systems

    This paper presents a real options approach to handling uncertainties associated with the long-term planning of water distribution system development. Furthermore, carbon emissions associated with the installation and operation of water distribution networks are considered. These emissions are computed by taking an embodied energy approach to the different materials used in water networks. A ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessment of real losses in potable water distribution systems: some recent developments

    ABSTRACTConsiderable progress has been made over the past 10 years in the assessment and benchmarking of real losses in potable water distribution systems. Most of the advances have been based on the burst and background estimate (BABE) methodology, which was first developed in the mid-1990s by the UK water industry and has since been widely accepted and used in many parts of the world. Since ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of genetic programming to modeling pipe failures in water distribution systems

    The water loss from a water distribution system is a serious problem for many cities, which incurs enormous economic and social loss. However, the economic and human resource costs to exactly locate the leakage are extraordinarily high. Thus, reliable and robust pipe failure models are demanded to assess a pipe's propensity to fail. Beijing City was selected as the case study area and the pipe ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reducing life-cycle carbon footprints in the redesign of water distribution systems

    Water distribution systems (WDSs) contribute to undesirable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are generated through their component fabrication, construction, operation and disposal processes. The concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere is strongly associated with global warming and climate change. In order to meet the consequent challenge of limiting GHG emissions, the problem of WDS redesign ...


    By IWA Publishing

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