water distribution system Articles

  • Water Distribution System Audit

    In April 2007, a site survey of a spa outside of Paris, France, was jointly performed by LuminUltra Technologies Ltd. and AQUA-tools. The spa utilizes untreated mineral water (from ground wells) in its daily operation. The source water is distributed to 40+ stations for therapeutic purposes. One week prior to the site audit, two stations had tested positive for pathogenic organisms in the ...


    By LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.

  • Water Distribution System Security Monitoring

    A water security instrument essentially needs to be able to detect potential contaminants in drinking water. Since a significant number of potential chemical contaminants are organic in nature, a water security monitoring instrument that can detect organic matter in water is perfect for this application. Real Tech has developed an instrument specifically designed for water security ...


    By Real Tech Inc.

  • A history of water distribution systems and their optimisation

    Water distribution systems have a very long and rich history dating back to the third millennium B.C. Advances in water supply and distribution were followed in parallel by discoveries and inventions in other related fields. Therefore, it is the aim of this paper to review both the history of water distribution systems and those related fields in order to present a coherent summary of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Automated parameter optimization of a water distribution system

    The hydraulic model EPANET was applied and calibrated for the water distribution system (WDS) of La Sirena, Colombia. The Parameter ESTimator (PEST) was used for parameter optimization and sensitivity analysis. Observation data included levels at water storage tanks and pressures at monitoring nodes. Adjustable parameters were grouped into different classes according to two different scenarios ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Automated determination and evaluation of water losses in water distribution systems

    Using conventional methods and tools for determining detailed zonal water balances and performance indicators involves considerable efforts in manual data collection and processing. Hence, water balances mostly are determined for a whole network only. Unmetered components are often neglected or based on rough estimates. This article presents an approach to the automated determination of zonal ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Uncertainty in the analysis of urban water supply and distribution systems

    Conventionally, the design of urban water supply and distribution systems is based on the assumption that all the involved parameters are known a priori and remain unaltered throughout the life cycle of the system. However, significant uncertainties do appear during the analysis and design of these systems, such as the equivalent pipe roughness and the actual internal diameters of the pipes. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorate formation in water distribution systems: a modeling study

    Chlorine-based disinfection agents are known to favor the production of disinfection by-products (DBPs), whose concentrations are restricted by international guidelines to ensure a safe consumption of drinking water. Hence, it is important to understand the behavior of DBPs within water distribution networks (WDNs) to avoid users' exposure to concentrations higher than guideline values. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, monitor and mitigate water losses in water transmission and distribution systems. One of the causes of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Simultaneous corrosion control and water quality improvement in water distribution systems

    The effects of different dosages of sodium hexametaphosphate and sodium orthophosphate on corrosion inhibition and water quality in two model water distribution systems, and the corrosion inhibition mechanism on pipe walls were investigated. Results show that adding sodium hexametaphosphate and sodium orthophosphate can not only provide a remedy for the damaged cement coating surface, but ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Comparative analysis of different probability distributions of random parameters in the assessment of water distribution system reliability

    During recent years, several methods based on the probabilistic approach have been proposed for the analysis of the performance of water distribution systems (WDSs). Uncertain elements are described by probabilistic laws chosen and parameterised on the basis of the network characteristics. However, the choice of the most suitable probabilistic distribution and of the statistical parameters can ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water distribution system model calibration under uncertainty environments

    The calibration process of water distribution system models allows for accurate and reliable hydraulic analysis results. Thus, calibration is of utmost importance if adequate operation and maintenance model-based procedures are sought. However, in emerging economies, there is a series of factors that make it more difficult to construct accurate models, including very poor information management, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Study on the impacts of peaking factors on a water distribution system in Germany

    This paper aims to explore the impacts of peaking factors on a water distribution system designed for a small city in Germany through model-based analysis. As a case study, the water distribution network was modelled by EPANET and then two specific studies were carried out. The first study tested corresponding system-wide influences on water age and energy consumption if the peaking factors used ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A model to simulate leakage through joints in water distribution systems

    The water loss is a phenomenon frequently observed within water distribution systems. A considerable part of water losses occurs either because of the incorrect assembly of joints or because of the fatigue and ageing of the material used to ensure a watertight seal. Moreover, such a leakage is very difficult to detect and to assess. In this work, we present a novel formulation for modelling the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reduction in water losses in water distribution systems using pressure reduction valves

    Water loss is a phenomenon frequently observed within water distribution systems (WDSs), that is considerably worsened by an excessive pressure throughout the network. As an alternative option to pipe replacement, the use of pumps working as turbines, throttle control valves (TCVs), or pressure reduction valves (PRVs) can be used to reduce leakage. For a preassigned number of these devices, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Diminishing marginal returns for sensor networks in a water distribution system

    With increasing interest in the implementation/functionality of a contaminant warning system for water distribution systems, questions exist over the application to a real distribution system. A methodology is described to assess the impacts of changes in the numbers of sensors, on the time delay required to detect a contaminant intrusion event and to maximize sensor detection redundancy as ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Research on minimizing electric power usage in water distribution system

    The purpose of this study is to propose the optimal water supply control and management plan for minimizing power usage by water distribution pumps. The key topic of this study is to determine from which treatment plants water should be supplied, and through which supply stations it should be distributed. This study devised an optimal model of the ‘route/flow decision problem’ for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Pressure Control for Leakage Minimisation in Water Distribution Systems Management

    A model to support decision systems regarding the quantification, location and opening adjustment of control valves in a network system, with the main objective to minimise pressures and consequently leakage levels is developed. This research work aims at a solution that allows simultaneously optimising the number of valves and its location, as well as valves opening adjustments for simulation in ...


    By Springer

  • Hybrid metaheuristics for multi-objective design of water distribution systems

    Multi-objective design of Water Distribution Systems (WDSs) has received considerable attention in the past. Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are popular in tackling this problem due to their ability to approach the true Pareto-optimal front (PF) in a single run. Recently, several hybrid metaheuristics based on MOEAs have been proposed and validated on test problems. Among these ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Bacteriological water quality changes in parallel pilot distribution systems

    In a component of an extensive pilot distribution system (PDS) study, the effects of four different water qualities on biological stability in distributed water were investigated through identical (parallel) single-pass pipe arrangements. Through 24 months of monitoring, a number of key observations were made. Incorporation of a biological treatment step reduced the overall dissolved organic ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Early warning system to forecast maximum temperature in drinking water distribution systems

    Climate change poses new challenges in preventing the exceedance of the maximum allowed temperature in the drinking water distribution system (DWDS). The objective of this article is to evaluate the feasibility of forecasting the maximum temperature in the DWDS. Two options were analysed: (1) using the records of the last day as forecast for the coming 2 days and (2) using 2-day weather forecast ...


    By IWA Publishing

Need help finding the right suppliers? Try XPRT Sourcing. Let the XPRTs do the work for you