water distribution system Articles

  • Water Distribution System Audit

    In April 2007, a site survey of a spa outside of Paris, France, was jointly performed by LuminUltra Technologies Ltd. and AQUA-tools. The spa utilizes untreated mineral water (from ground wells) in its daily operation. The source water is distributed to 40+ stations for therapeutic purposes. One week prior to the site audit, two stations had tested positive for pathogenic organisms in the ...


    By LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.

  • A history of water distribution systems and their optimisation

    Water distribution systems have a very long and rich history dating back to the third millennium B.C. Advances in water supply and distribution were followed in parallel by discoveries and inventions in other related fields. Therefore, it is the aim of this paper to review both the history of water distribution systems and those related fields in order to present a coherent summary of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water Distribution System Security Monitoring

    A water security instrument essentially needs to be able to detect potential contaminants in drinking water. Since a significant number of potential chemical contaminants are organic in nature, a water security monitoring instrument that can detect organic matter in water is perfect for this application. Real Tech has developed an instrument specifically designed for water security ...


    By Real Tech Inc.

  • Scrubber Removes Grease and Particulates from Air Exhaust

    Operating Issue A food-industry leader in Alabama operates several pork-sausage cookers that exhaust over 4,000 ACFM of moisture and pork grease. The operator installed Electrostatic Precipitators (ESPs) to treat the exhaust but these systems performed poorly and generated high maintenance and operating costs. Additionally, these systems were antiquated and required significant capital ...


    By Pollution Systems

  • Current Trends in Modelling Water Distribution Systems

    Untitled Document Hydraulic Modelling is emerging from the infrastructure planning offices of our water utilities, where it continues to play a vital role in optimising capital investment projects, to take a ...


    By Innovyze

  • Automated parameter optimization of a water distribution system

    The hydraulic model EPANET was applied and calibrated for the water distribution system (WDS) of La Sirena, Colombia. The Parameter ESTimator (PEST) was used for parameter optimization and sensitivity analysis. Observation data included levels at water storage tanks and pressures at monitoring nodes. Adjustable parameters were grouped into different classes according to two different scenarios ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorate formation in water distribution systems: a modeling study

    Chlorine-based disinfection agents are known to favor the production of disinfection by-products (DBPs), whose concentrations are restricted by international guidelines to ensure a safe consumption of drinking water. Hence, it is important to understand the behavior of DBPs within water distribution networks (WDNs) to avoid users' exposure to concentrations higher than guideline values. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, monitor and mitigate water losses in water transmission and distribution systems. One of the causes of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reduction in water losses in water distribution systems using pressure reduction valves

    Water loss is a phenomenon frequently observed within water distribution systems (WDSs), that is considerably worsened by an excessive pressure throughout the network. As an alternative option to pipe replacement, the use of pumps working as turbines, throttle control valves (TCVs), or pressure reduction valves (PRVs) can be used to reduce leakage. For a preassigned number of these devices, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Early warning system to forecast maximum temperature in drinking water distribution systems

    Climate change poses new challenges in preventing the exceedance of the maximum allowed temperature in the drinking water distribution system (DWDS). The objective of this article is to evaluate the feasibility of forecasting the maximum temperature in the DWDS. Two options were analysed: (1) using the records of the last day as forecast for the coming 2 days and (2) using 2-day weather forecast ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Automated determination and evaluation of water losses in water distribution systems

    Using conventional methods and tools for determining detailed zonal water balances and performance indicators involves considerable efforts in manual data collection and processing. Hence, water balances mostly are determined for a whole network only. Unmetered components are often neglected or based on rough estimates. This article presents an approach to the automated determination of zonal ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hybrid metaheuristics for multi-objective design of water distribution systems

    Multi-objective design of Water Distribution Systems (WDSs) has received considerable attention in the past. Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are popular in tackling this problem due to their ability to approach the true Pareto-optimal front (PF) in a single run. Recently, several hybrid metaheuristics based on MOEAs have been proposed and validated on test problems. Among these ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Using a new pressure index for water distribution systems upgradation improvement evaluation

    Potable water distribution systems (WDS) require upgrade strategies based on a pre-defined time interval which is identified by the responsible water authorities. The main goal of a potable water system upgrade is maintaining the standard and acceptable level of service after the occurrence of increases in the serviced population, asset ageing, and/or development of the serviced area. Defining ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Energy efficiency in water distribution systems - A path to an ideal network - AGS experience

    Water utilities’ responsibility to deliver quality and reliable service under a sustainable basis requires an increasingly efficient management and therefore an asset management strategy that ensures high levels of service, safe and reliable drinking-water quality and an appropriate network performance. In Portugal, IAM gave a step forward with a recent Portuguese decree law (Decreto-Lei ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Leakage–pressure relationship and leakage detection in intermittent water distribution systems

    Field investigations were conducted to identify the relationship between leakage rate and pressure in selected areas of the water distribution system of the Holy City of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Noise correlators were used to detect leaks in areas where the water leakage exceeded 20% of the total water supplied. The leakage rate was found to be related to pressure raised to the nth power. The value ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Strontium adsorption and desorption reactions in model drinking water distribution systems

    Divalent cationic strontium (Sr2+) adsorption to and desorption from iron corrosion products were examined in two model drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). One system was maintained with chlorine-disinfected drinking water and the other with the same water with secondary chloramine disinfection. Flow conditions simulated primary transmission lines (constant flow) and residential ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A PSO approach for optimum design of dynamic inversion controller in water distribution systems

    Water distribution systems have become immensely complex due to ever increasing water demand and sporadic availability of water at the sources. Generally, water management issues are handled through human intervention, which naturally leads to incompetent trial and error procedures. Moreover, the non-linear system dynamics and sequential pumping operations involved in the water distribution ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Robustness-based optimal pump design and scheduling for water distribution systems

    We introduce a new system robustness index for optimizing the pump design and operation of water distribution systems. Here, robustness is defined as a system's ability to continue functioning under varying demand conditions. The maximum difference between the daily maximum and minimum pressures of a node was taken as a robustness indicator and incorporated as a constraint in a pump design and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Leakage fault detection in district metered areas of water distribution systems

    Fault tolerance and security in drinking water distribution operations are important issues that have received increased attention in the last few years. In this work the problem of leakage detection is formulated within a systems engineering framework, and a solution methodology to detect leakages in a class of distribution systems is proposed. Specifically, the case where water utilities use ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Logistic regression analysis to estimate contaminant sources in water distribution systems

    Accidental or intentional contamination in a water distribution system (WDS) has recently attracted attention due to the potential hazard to public health and the complexity of the contaminant characteristics. The accurate and rapid characterization of contaminant sources is necessary to successfully mitigate the threat in the event of contamination. The uncertainty surrounding the contaminants, ...


    By IWA Publishing

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