water distribution system Articles

  • Water Distribution System Audit

    In April 2007, a site survey of a spa outside of Paris, France, was jointly performed by LuminUltra Technologies Ltd. and AQUA-tools. The spa utilizes untreated mineral water (from ground wells) in its daily operation. The source water is distributed to 40+ stations for therapeutic purposes. One week prior to the site audit, two stations had tested positive for pathogenic organisms in the ...


    By LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.

  • Water Distribution System Security Monitoring

    A water security instrument essentially needs to be able to detect potential contaminants in drinking water. Since a significant number of potential chemical contaminants are organic in nature, a water security monitoring instrument that can detect organic matter in water is perfect for this application. Real Tech has developed an instrument specifically designed for water security ...


    By Real Tech Inc.

  • A history of water distribution systems and their optimisation

    Water distribution systems have a very long and rich history dating back to the third millennium B.C. Advances in water supply and distribution were followed in parallel by discoveries and inventions in other related fields. Therefore, it is the aim of this paper to review both the history of water distribution systems and those related fields in order to present a coherent summary of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The benefits of monitoring compressed air

    Compressed air is used in many manufacturing processes for many different reasons, from the actuation and control of pneumatic valves and cylinders to the operation of process machinery and tooling. It can also be used as a transport medium for bulk materials or as a purge gas. For all its uses it is nonetheless expensive. This is why, through detailed monitoring, a business can enjoy the ...


    By Contrec Europe Limited

  • A quick guide to oil analysis for engine test applications

    Reliability testing is a very important component of new engine development. Engineers need to fully understand and chart the engine lifetime performance under a variety of conditions before mass production may be considered. Many important performance data parameters are collected in real time through the many different types of sensors that are connected to the engine in the test cell and oil ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, monitor and mitigate water losses in water transmission and distribution systems. One of the causes of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Automated parameter optimization of a water distribution system

    The hydraulic model EPANET was applied and calibrated for the water distribution system (WDS) of La Sirena, Colombia. The Parameter ESTimator (PEST) was used for parameter optimization and sensitivity analysis. Observation data included levels at water storage tanks and pressures at monitoring nodes. Adjustable parameters were grouped into different classes according to two different scenarios ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Current Trends in Modelling Water Distribution Systems

    Untitled Document Hydraulic Modelling is emerging from the infrastructure planning offices of our water utilities, where it continues to play a vital role in optimising capital investment projects, to take a ...


    By Innovyze

  • Chlorate formation in water distribution systems: a modeling study

    Chlorine-based disinfection agents are known to favor the production of disinfection by-products (DBPs), whose concentrations are restricted by international guidelines to ensure a safe consumption of drinking water. Hence, it is important to understand the behavior of DBPs within water distribution networks (WDNs) to avoid users' exposure to concentrations higher than guideline values. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reduction in water losses in water distribution systems using pressure reduction valves

    Water loss is a phenomenon frequently observed within water distribution systems (WDSs), that is considerably worsened by an excessive pressure throughout the network. As an alternative option to pipe replacement, the use of pumps working as turbines, throttle control valves (TCVs), or pressure reduction valves (PRVs) can be used to reduce leakage. For a preassigned number of these devices, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Automated determination and evaluation of water losses in water distribution systems

    Using conventional methods and tools for determining detailed zonal water balances and performance indicators involves considerable efforts in manual data collection and processing. Hence, water balances mostly are determined for a whole network only. Unmetered components are often neglected or based on rough estimates. This article presents an approach to the automated determination of zonal ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Early warning system to forecast maximum temperature in drinking water distribution systems

    Climate change poses new challenges in preventing the exceedance of the maximum allowed temperature in the drinking water distribution system (DWDS). The objective of this article is to evaluate the feasibility of forecasting the maximum temperature in the DWDS. Two options were analysed: (1) using the records of the last day as forecast for the coming 2 days and (2) using 2-day weather forecast ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Leakage–pressure relationship and leakage detection in intermittent water distribution systems

    Field investigations were conducted to identify the relationship between leakage rate and pressure in selected areas of the water distribution system of the Holy City of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Noise correlators were used to detect leaks in areas where the water leakage exceeded 20% of the total water supplied. The leakage rate was found to be related to pressure raised to the nth power. The value ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A PSO approach for optimum design of dynamic inversion controller in water distribution systems

    Water distribution systems have become immensely complex due to ever increasing water demand and sporadic availability of water at the sources. Generally, water management issues are handled through human intervention, which naturally leads to incompetent trial and error procedures. Moreover, the non-linear system dynamics and sequential pumping operations involved in the water distribution ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Strontium adsorption and desorption reactions in model drinking water distribution systems

    Divalent cationic strontium (Sr2+) adsorption to and desorption from iron corrosion products were examined in two model drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). One system was maintained with chlorine-disinfected drinking water and the other with the same water with secondary chloramine disinfection. Flow conditions simulated primary transmission lines (constant flow) and residential ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • An ontology-based knowledge management framework for a distributed water information system

    With the increasing complexity of hydrologic problems, data collection and data analysis are often carried out in distributed heterogeneous systems. Therefore it is critical for users to determine the origin of data and its trustworthiness. Provenance describes the information life cycle of data products. It has been recognised as one of the most promising methods to improve data transparency. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Leakage fault detection in district metered areas of water distribution systems

    Fault tolerance and security in drinking water distribution operations are important issues that have received increased attention in the last few years. In this work the problem of leakage detection is formulated within a systems engineering framework, and a solution methodology to detect leakages in a class of distribution systems is proposed. Specifically, the case where water utilities use ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Robustness-based optimal pump design and scheduling for water distribution systems

    We introduce a new system robustness index for optimizing the pump design and operation of water distribution systems. Here, robustness is defined as a system's ability to continue functioning under varying demand conditions. The maximum difference between the daily maximum and minimum pressures of a node was taken as a robustness indicator and incorporated as a constraint in a pump design and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Using a new pressure index for water distribution systems upgradation improvement evaluation

    Potable water distribution systems (WDS) require upgrade strategies based on a pre-defined time interval which is identified by the responsible water authorities. The main goal of a potable water system upgrade is maintaining the standard and acceptable level of service after the occurrence of increases in the serviced population, asset ageing, and/or development of the serviced area. Defining ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Bacteriological water quality changes in parallel pilot distribution systems

    In a component of an extensive pilot distribution system (PDS) study, the effects of four different water qualities on biological stability in distributed water were investigated through identical (parallel) single-pass pipe arrangements. Through 24 months of monitoring, a number of key observations were made. Incorporation of a biological treatment step reduced the overall dissolved organic ...


    By IWA Publishing

Need help finding the right suppliers? Try XPRT Sourcing. Let the XPRTs do the work for you