water distribution system Articles

  • Surface Water Monitoring - Case Study

    Safe operation of a Water Treatment Plant (WTP) requires careful monitoring of the water supply influent to the plant, as a guard for any substances entering the treatment works that could negatively impact treated water quality in the distribution system. One aspect of water quality that has recently garnered more attention from authorities and utilities is Natural Organic Matter (NOM), which ...


    By MANTECH Inc.

  • 3 Water Utilities that Lowered their Arsenic Levels with AdEdge

    Finding an appropriate solution to address arsenic in raw water can be challenging for utilities. Studies have shown that when ingested in high concentrations, it is linked to cancer in the skin, lungs, bladder and kidney, and can cause significant skin changes, such as thickening and pigmentation, as well as other health issues. For this reason, the ...

  • Water Distribution System Audit

    In April 2007, a site survey of a spa outside of Paris, France, was jointly performed by LuminUltra Technologies Ltd. and AQUA-tools. The spa utilizes untreated mineral water (from ground wells) in its daily operation. The source water is distributed to 40+ stations for therapeutic purposes. One week prior to the site audit, two stations had tested positive for pathogenic organisms in the ...


    By LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.

  • Water Distribution System Security Monitoring

    A water security instrument essentially needs to be able to detect potential contaminants in drinking water. Since a significant number of potential chemical contaminants are organic in nature, a water security monitoring instrument that can detect organic matter in water is perfect for this application. Real Tech has developed an instrument specifically designed for water security ...


    By Real Tech Inc.

  • A history of water distribution systems and their optimisation

    Water distribution systems have a very long and rich history dating back to the third millennium B.C. Advances in water supply and distribution were followed in parallel by discoveries and inventions in other related fields. Therefore, it is the aim of this paper to review both the history of water distribution systems and those related fields in order to present a coherent summary of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Uncertainty in the analysis of urban water supply and distribution systems

    Conventionally, the design of urban water supply and distribution systems is based on the assumption that all the involved parameters are known a priori and remain unaltered throughout the life cycle of the system. However, significant uncertainties do appear during the analysis and design of these systems, such as the equivalent pipe roughness and the actual internal diameters of the pipes. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorate formation in water distribution systems: a modeling study

    Chlorine-based disinfection agents are known to favor the production of disinfection by-products (DBPs), whose concentrations are restricted by international guidelines to ensure a safe consumption of drinking water. Hence, it is important to understand the behavior of DBPs within water distribution networks (WDNs) to avoid users' exposure to concentrations higher than guideline values. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Automated parameter optimization of a water distribution system

    The hydraulic model EPANET was applied and calibrated for the water distribution system (WDS) of La Sirena, Colombia. The Parameter ESTimator (PEST) was used for parameter optimization and sensitivity analysis. Observation data included levels at water storage tanks and pressures at monitoring nodes. Adjustable parameters were grouped into different classes according to two different scenarios ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, monitor and mitigate water losses in water transmission and distribution systems. One of the causes of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Current Trends in Modelling Water Distribution Systems

    Untitled Document Hydraulic Modelling is emerging from the infrastructure planning offices of our water utilities, where it continues to play a vital role in optimising capital investment projects, to take a ...


    By Innovyze

  • Automated determination and evaluation of water losses in water distribution systems

    Using conventional methods and tools for determining detailed zonal water balances and performance indicators involves considerable efforts in manual data collection and processing. Hence, water balances mostly are determined for a whole network only. Unmetered components are often neglected or based on rough estimates. This article presents an approach to the automated determination of zonal ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reduction in water losses in water distribution systems using pressure reduction valves

    Water loss is a phenomenon frequently observed within water distribution systems (WDSs), that is considerably worsened by an excessive pressure throughout the network. As an alternative option to pipe replacement, the use of pumps working as turbines, throttle control valves (TCVs), or pressure reduction valves (PRVs) can be used to reduce leakage. For a preassigned number of these devices, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Simultaneous corrosion control and water quality improvement in water distribution systems

    The effects of different dosages of sodium hexametaphosphate and sodium orthophosphate on corrosion inhibition and water quality in two model water distribution systems, and the corrosion inhibition mechanism on pipe walls were investigated. Results show that adding sodium hexametaphosphate and sodium orthophosphate can not only provide a remedy for the damaged cement coating surface, but ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Early warning system to forecast maximum temperature in drinking water distribution systems

    Climate change poses new challenges in preventing the exceedance of the maximum allowed temperature in the drinking water distribution system (DWDS). The objective of this article is to evaluate the feasibility of forecasting the maximum temperature in the DWDS. Two options were analysed: (1) using the records of the last day as forecast for the coming 2 days and (2) using 2-day weather forecast ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of genetic programming to modeling pipe failures in water distribution systems

    The water loss from a water distribution system is a serious problem for many cities, which incurs enormous economic and social loss. However, the economic and human resource costs to exactly locate the leakage are extraordinarily high. Thus, reliable and robust pipe failure models are demanded to assess a pipe's propensity to fail. Beijing City was selected as the case study area and the pipe ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Using real options for an eco-friendly design of water distribution systems

    This paper presents a real options approach to handling uncertainties associated with the long-term planning of water distribution system development. Furthermore, carbon emissions associated with the installation and operation of water distribution networks are considered. These emissions are computed by taking an embodied energy approach to the different materials used in water networks. A ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Mixing at double-Tee junctions with unequal pipe sizes in water distribution systems

    Pipe flow mixing with various solute concentrations and flow rates at pipe junctions is investigated. The degree of mixing affects contaminant spread in a water distribution system, and many studies have focused on mixing at the cross junctions; however, only a few have focused on double-Tee junctions of unequal pipe diameters. To investigate the solute mixing at such junctions, a series of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Linking discolouration modelling and biofilm behaviour within drinking water distribution systems

    High quality drinking water exits modern treatment works, yet water quality degradation such as discolouration continues to occur within drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). Discolouration is observed globally, suggesting a common process despite variations in source, treatment, disinfection and network configurations. The primary cause of discolouration has been identified as ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Diminishing marginal returns for sensor networks in a water distribution system

    With increasing interest in the implementation/functionality of a contaminant warning system for water distribution systems, questions exist over the application to a real distribution system. A methodology is described to assess the impacts of changes in the numbers of sensors, on the time delay required to detect a contaminant intrusion event and to maximize sensor detection redundancy as ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Pipe roughness calibration in water distribution systems using grey numbers

    This paper presents a procedure based on the use of grey numbers for the calibration (with uncertainty) of pipe roughness in water distribution systems. The pipe roughness uncertainty is represented through the grey number amplitude (or interval). The procedure is of a wholly general nature and can be applied for the calibration (with uncertainty) of other parameters or quantities, such as nodal ...


    By IWA Publishing

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