water footprint Articles

  • Pulp & Paper Water Treatment - A look at optimizing water resource management

    Application Case Study (Pulp/Paper Operations) The pulp and paper industry has traditionally been a consumer of large amounts of fresh water and power. Recently, increased focus has been given to the optimized efficiency of paper mills and to the environmental sustainability footprint of the industry. Therefore, water resource management has become a more critical factor ...

  • The water footprint of humanity

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprint (WF) of humanity at a high spatial resolution. It reports on consumptive use of rainwater (green WF) and ground and surface water (blue WF) and volumes of water polluted (gray WF). Water footprints are estimated per nation from both a production and consumption perspective. International virtual water flows are estimated based on trade in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The industrial water footprint of zippers

    Industrial production of apparel consumes large quantity of freshwater and discharges effluents that intensify the problem of freshwater shortage and water pollution. The industrial water footprint (IWF) of a piece of apparel includes the water footprint (WF) of the fabric, apparel accessories (e.g. zipper, fastener, sewing thread) and industrial production processes. The objective of this paper ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The water footprint of Milan

    This study quantifies the water footprint of consumption (WFcons) and production (WFprod) of Milan. The current WFcons amounts to 6,139 l/cap/d (a volume of 2.93 km3 annually), of which 52 l/cap/d (1%) is attributed to domestic water, 448 l/cap/d (7%) to the consumption of industrial products and 5,639 l/cap/d (92%) to the consumption of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • 100 Simple Ways To Save Water

    To improve water conservation install a rain sensor, it turns off your irrigation when it rains. Use a weather-based controller. The use of smart controllers can reduce water usage 24% a year on average. Learn about available rebate programs ...


    By Jain Irrigation, Inc

  • The water footprint of Austria for different diets

    This paper analyses the Austrian water footprint of consumption (WFcons) for different diets: the current diet, a healthy diet (based upon the dietary recommendations issued by the German nutrition society, or DGE), a vegetarian diet and a combined diet between both latter diets. As in many western countries, the current Austrian diet consists of too many products from the groups sugar, crop ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol

    An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce resource. This study aims to assess the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of sweeteners and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reducing industrial water footprint lightens energy footprint, too

    The close connection between the water footprint of an industrial facility, which describes its overall consumption and efficiency of its water use, and its carbon footprint – much of which reflects the energy used to move, heat, cool or treat water – has never been more apparent. And as clean freshwater becomes increasingly scarce and energy becomes more expensive, reducing the water footprint ...

  • Measuring corporate environmental footprint

    Nuno DaSilva, Managing Director of PE Americas, reveals the best methodologies for measuring an organization’s environmental impact. Frequently I get asked for guidance on the best methods for measuring an organization's environmental footprint. Questions tend to be about 'should measurement be based strictly on collecting emissions and energy use data from operational and facility sites?' How ...


    By thinkstep

  • Biofuels and carbon footprint

    Europe’s use of biofuels to fuel its vehicles risks driving land grabs and deforestation, increasing food prices, exacerbating poverty and hunger, and accelerating climate change. We are seriously concerned that the Commission has not yet taken action to ensure that Europe’s green transport policy discourages those biofuels that cause higher greenhouse gas emissions than fossil ...


    By Wetlands International

  • Determining Proper Cooling Tower Size

    To maximize water-based cooling tower benefits, the appropriate tower size must be selected, requiring the identification of several critical factors. Cooling towers are a relatively inexpensive and reliable way of expelling heat from a number of industrial processes, including nuclear & thermal power plants, petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants, food processing plants, as well as HVAC ...


    By Delta Cooling Towers, Inc

  • Study on the water footprint and external water dependency of Beijing

    Beijing has experienced rapid economic development and population growth during recent decades, aggravating water scarcity. In order to investigate the water consumption of Beijing, this paper quantitatively evaluates the water footprint (WF), the intensity of the water footprint (Iwf) and the external water dependency (WD) based on the top-down and bottom-up methods. We obtain the following ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Deep ditch minimizes footprint

    A goal of many communities in planning wastewater treatment facilities is to minimize the footprint, reducing land use. To reach this goal, a Chinese municipality built their oxidation ditch to deeper parameter depths than conventional designs but experienced serious process and mechanical issues. Officials found that not all aerators are equal. For tackling this deep ditch activated sludge ...

  • Assessing the environmental impact of the water footprint in Beijing, China

    Beijing is experiencing a shortage of water resources. Its rapid development and dense population have caused an extreme demand for water. This study quantifies the water footprint of Beijing at the sectoral level using a modified input–output model and estimates the impacts of freshwater use by life cycle impact assessment. The results suggest that the main water source of Beijing industries ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower

    Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world’s electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A preliminary water footprint assessment of copper production in China

    Scarcer water resources, stricter water regulations, decline in ore grade and increasing controversy on water use between local communities and mining operators have raised awareness of good water stewardship as being vital to running commercially viable mining operations. Water footprint assessment (WFA) is a holistic methodological framework that allows detailed quantification of direct and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Bioethanol water footprint: life cycle optimization for water reduction

    In Thailand, the Alternative Energy Development Plan has set the target to increase the use of bioethanol to 9.00 million liters per day by 2021. To achieve this goal, both freshwater availability for energy crops and best practices in bioethanol production chain management are very important issues. Therefore, this study integrates water footprint technique with the linear programing approach ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • How Communities Are Reducing Ecological Footprints

    MUNICIPAL LEADERS from San Francisco to Melbourne are engaging in sustainability actions from banning plastic bags and bottled water to making commitments to address climate change. But within and beyond cities, growing numbers of local communities are also going green, according to a new Vital Signs Update from the Worldwatch Institute. Worldwide, the 379 “ecovillages” currently registered with ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • The water footprint as an indicator for managing water resources: the case of Italian olive oil

    Researchers, politicians and decision-makers continue to search for a recipe for sustainable economic growth. International interest is growing in the use of material indicators for evaluating the impact of human activities on natural systems. Water footprinting is becoming a popular way of understanding the total water input used to produce goods and services to help managers and policy makers ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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