water hardness control Articles

  • Cardiovascular diseases and hard drinking waters: implications from a systematic review with meta-analysis of case-control studies

    This systematic review with meta-analysis, performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, aims at evaluating the potential correlation between magnesium and calcium concentration in drinking waters and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which impose a considerable burden in high-income countries. Included studies were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effect of water hardness and pipe material on enhanced disinfection with UV light and chlorine

    Limited studies have been conducted to evaluate synergistic benefits between disinfectants, although promise has been shown between ultraviolet (UV) light and chlorine-based disinfectants. This research aimed to determine drinking water quality factors that affect potential for enhanced removal of heterotrophic bacteria due to synergy between UV light and free chlorine. An additional goal was to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • What is so hard about drainage modeling?

    Drainage modeling often suffers from the misconception that it is simple, but while it appears obvious that rain water will flow to the lowest point, the physical processes involved are not always well-understood or predictable. Drainage models attempt to predict that part of the water cycle that involves rainfall and its consequences, including potential flooding. Although flooding is, at its ...


    By Innovyze

  • Using Best Vapor Steam Cleaners for Carpets and Hard Surfaces Cleaning

    Vapor steam cleaner machines are popular cleaning systems for commercial cleaning tasks because of their versatile cleaning applications. They are powered by the cleaning capabilities of superheated water that cleans away almost all types of dirt, debris, and stubborn sedimentation. With the right technology, steam also acts as an effective disinfectant and keeps your office and residential space ...


    By Daimer Industries Inc.

  • Finding your way off the 303(d) list – a success story on the Harding Drain

    The Turlock Irrigation District (TID) provides irrigation water to agricultural lands in areas near Turlock, California. The Harding Drain, which is part of the TID system, is a constructed agricultural drain that collects and conveys discharges from several types of sources, including runoff from agricultural and urban areas and effluent discharges from the Turlock Regional Water Quality Control ...

  • Controlling scale in water systems helps prevent legionella

    The Legionella bacterium, Legionella Pneumophila (LP), the fundamental agent of Legionnaire’s Disease, is a water-based organism, which causes infection when inhaled in an aerosol form. Legionnaires' Disease acquired its name in 1976 when an outbreak of pneumonia occurred among persons attending a convention of the American Legion in Philadelphia. Later, the bacterium causing the illness ...

  • Evaluation of control strategies for drinking water treatment plants using a process model

    This research adds a method to evaluate control strategies to the design methodology for drinking water treatment plants. A process model dealing with parameters related to the calcium carbon dioxide equilibrium was set up. Using the process model, the existing control strategy was compared with a new control strategy and the effects of two different sets of input data were studied. It was ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Boiler Dissolved Oxygen Control

    DISSOLVED OXYGEN CHEMISTRY Dissolved Oxygen (DO) is a measure of the amount of oxygen, usually thought of as a gas, that is dissolved in a liquid such as water. Oxygen is essential to life and is also the most common element found taking part in corrosion reactions. DO can be thought of as the fuel needed for the corrosion process to proceed. It is the corrosion reactions that necessitate ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Mercury Spill Control Procedures

    Mercury is a known neurotoxin that is extremely toxic even in small amounts. It directly affects the central nervous and renal systems, causing developmental delays, motor and brain problems like those associated with autism. Mercury"s hidden danger also lies in when at room temperature, when exposed it vaporizes readily. Once ...


  • Mercury Spill Control Procedures

    Mercury is a dangerous neurotoxin that can have damaging affects on both the central nervous system and renal system of humans. Exposure to mercury can cause serious developmental delays in children, and high level exposure is life threatening. When exposed to air, mercury vaporizes, readily becoming a dangerous aerosol that can be absorbed into the lungs and spread throughout the body. This is ...


  • Pressure Washing Equipment for Temperature Control

    Pressure washing equipment with heating capabilities has one advantage over non-heated pressure washing equipment. These machines can use hot as well as cold water. Therefore, when purchasing pressure washing equipment, it is always a good idea to purchase machines that allow for temperature control. Hot Water Applications Hot water cleans where cold water cannot. Heat acts on ...


    By Daimer Industries Inc.

  • Microorganism growth control - Case Study

    KDF Process Media uses Oxidation Reduction Process for Scale and Bacteria Removal A plastic injection molding plant uses KDF media to control microorganisms and eliminate scale build-up in cooling towers-at 25% of the cost of chemical treatments. Photo courtesy of Marley Tooling Technologies, Inc. KDF process media are incorporated into carbon blocks and other matrices for bacteria removal and ...


    By KDF Fluid Treatment, Inc.

  • Controlling Scale Deposition and Industrial Fouling

    It costs US industry billions of dollars a year to control and remove the limescale that builds up in industrial equipment such a heat exchangers, evaporative coolers, boilers, chillers and other water fed equipment. Oil wells, for example, face significant scaling problems from the highly mineralized water that are extracted with the oil. Limescale not only increases downtime, maintenance ...

  • Design and management of rainwater harvesting systems to control water quality for potable purposes in Cu Khe, Vietnam

    There are debates about whether rainwater is suitable as drinking water. A serious shortcoming of the debate is that there are differences in the design and management of rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems. This study is based on the performance of two RWH systems that are used for drinking purposes at a kindergarten and a primary school in Cu Khe, Vietnam. Each system comprised a painted ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Areas Most Prone to Winter Storm Water Can Benefit from Temporary Erosion Control

    Winter can be a beautiful time of year. Generally, there are nice, brief storms and maybe some snow, and everything is fine. But occasionally, we get hit hard with storms that just won’t let up, such as when it rains for days or feet of snow come down—we are left to deal with the consequences. All too often, those consequences involve too much water, despite the work put into ...

  • Pharmaceutical: a Practical Approach to Controlling Microbial Growth in USP

    The control of microbial growth in systems for producing United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Purified Water is of critical importance to pharmaceutical manufacturers. It is also of critical importance to the United States Pharmacopeial Convention Inc. (USP) organization, as evidenced by the sheer number of pages dedicated to the control of micro-organisms in the proposed USP 23 General Information ...

  • IWLive provides advanced forecasting and scenario evaluation to the water distribution system control room

    As the powerful advantages of the modeling of water distribution systems become increasingly more apparent, MWH Soft’s IWLive makes those benefits accessible to control room staff leading to greater efficiency, cost savings and an improved service for customers. Water supply operators are under a duty to provide a clean supply of water, of sufficient quantity and pressure to satisfy a range ...


    By Innovyze

  • Controlling scale deposits in the pulp & paper industry

    The pulp and paper industry is one of the heaviest users of water within the North American industrial economy, requiring on average 54 cubic meters of water per metric ton of finished product.  As water is used in nearly every part of the manufacturing process, accumulation of scale is a phenomenon that can occur in all pulp and paper making processes. This occurs even with the purest water ...

  • Keeping Your Control Valves in Good Health

    Whether that brand new control valve in your system is the first one you have ever had to look after or if you are an old hand at valve maintenance with tens of valves in your system, there are a few simple guidelines and reminders for keeping it operating at optimal performance. It’s important to physically check valves at least every 12 weeks or so, assuming everything is running fine in ...


    By Singer Valve Inc.

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