water leakage Articles

  • Leakage–pressure relationship and leakage detection in intermittent water distribution systems

    Field investigations were conducted to identify the relationship between leakage rate and pressure in selected areas of the water distribution system of the Holy City of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Noise correlators were used to detect leaks in areas where the water leakage exceeded 20% of the total water supplied. The leakage rate was found to be related to pressure raised to the nth power. The value ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Malta: Use of leakage control in water management strategy

    The Maltese islands, like other parts of the Mediterranean area is an area of acute water shortage. Leakage control has been developed to become a strategically important component for water resource management, and has been used to reach an optimum economic balance between water supply and water demand. An ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Electronic Water Meter For Leakage Repair - Case Study

    Every year, EMS (Energy Management System) produces and markets smart electronic water meters (domestic/ bulk), wireless transmission data logger (GSM/ GPRS), and advanced AMR (Automatic Metering Reading) systems. Unlike traditional mechanical water meter, the magnet-free electronic smart water meter with class C (CNS 14866) metrological performance can maintain 12 years battery lifespan. With a ...

  • Evaluating the pressure-leakage behaviour of leaks in water pipes

    Much progress has been made over the last decade in understanding the behaviour of flow through leak openings with changes in water mains pressure. In particular it has been established that variations in leak areas with pressure is the main factor responsible for the range of leakage exponents observed in practice, and several numerical and experimental studies have investigated this ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Feeling the Pressure to Reduce Leakage?

    Water is a resource that is often taken for granted. As we see the effects of climate change and population growth, the challenges we will face regarding water supply and availability will only increase. Examples of this are beginning to surface extensively in many areas of the world. In Adelaide, Australia, the Murray River has long supplied Adelaide with its source of water however the Murray ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Optimization techniques for leakage management in urban water distribution networks

    Reduction of leakages in water distribution systems (WDSs) is one of the major concerns for water industries. This paper presents a leakage reduction technique using pressure management by optimizing the water level in storage tanks, along with optimized control and localization of pressure-reducing valves (PRVs) in WDSs. A new mathematical tank and pump simulation algorithm is presented for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Experimental assessment of pressure–leakage relationship in a water distribution network

    The use of numerical simulations to improve the management of water distribution networks (WDNs) has dramatically increased in recent decades. Nevertheless, the modeling of leakages is still a major issue to face when setting up a model of a WDN. Because water losses increase at increasing pressure, they are usually modeled by assuming a leakage node behaves like an emitter. Unfortunately, a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A model to simulate leakage through joints in water distribution systems

    The water loss is a phenomenon frequently observed within water distribution systems. A considerable part of water losses occurs either because of the incorrect assembly of joints or because of the fatigue and ageing of the material used to ensure a watertight seal. Moreover, such a leakage is very difficult to detect and to assess. In this work, we present a novel formulation for modelling the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Detection of Minor Leakage in a Drinking Water Power Plant Pipeline

    Project in the South Tyrolean community Mals in Italy The final pressure test of a 2014 newly installed pipeline m a drinking water power plant in the South Tyrolean community Mals (Italy) showed a pressure loss out of range, which prevented the plant's commissioning. Thus the company MTA Messtechnik GmbH has been tasked to identify the reasons for the losses as quickly as possible ...


    By MTA Messtechnik GmbH

  • Specifying allowable leakage rates

    Introduction Allowable Leakage Rates or Action Leakage Rates (ALRs) are specified for installed geomembranes to quantify the maximum allowable liquid leakage. If the ALR is exceeded, corrective action must be taken to reduce the leakage rate below the set limit. To lower the leakage, the holes in the geomembrane are located and repaired. In some cases, the ALR is set so low that, ...

  • Common Reasons For Syringe Leakage

    The components of even the most durable syringe will eventually fail. The most common symptom of failure may be leakage of your solvent from the syringe. The following are some common reasons for syringe leakage, as well as our recommended solutions. 1. Tip Connection If your syringe hub consists of a PTFE tip, check for small grooves in the PTFE surface. If sufficiently large, ...


    By Chemyx Inc

  • Pressure Control for Leakage Minimisation in Water Distribution Systems Management

    A model to support decision systems regarding the quantification, location and opening adjustment of control valves in a network system, with the main objective to minimise pressures and consequently leakage levels is developed. This research work aims at a solution that allows simultaneously optimising the number of valves and its location, as well as valves opening adjustments for simulation in ...


    By Springer

  • Leakage fault detection in district metered areas of water distribution systems

    Fault tolerance and security in drinking water distribution operations are important issues that have received increased attention in the last few years. In this work the problem of leakage detection is formulated within a systems engineering framework, and a solution methodology to detect leakages in a class of distribution systems is proposed. Specifically, the case where water utilities use ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A genetic algorithm for demand pattern and leakage estimation in a water distribution network

    The sustainable management of water supply networks requires the control of physical pipe leakages, such as those due to junction obsolescence or pipe creeping. These leakages usually increase with the operating pressure, and their discharge is commonly assumed to scale with the power of the pressure. The same functional form is also employed to evaluate leakage occurring in the portion of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Leakage and failures of water distribution mains in the city of Al Ain, UAE

    A large amount of water is lost from the Al Ain water distribution system due to pipeline breakages that may have links to socio-economic and environmental impacts. The numbers of line failures in the region are too high. This study is an overview of the types and failure factors affecting water lines. Methods of repair and rehabilitation are described. Three case study locations were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessment of variable speed pumps in water distribution systems considering water leakage and transient operations

    In this study, the potential economic and hydraulic benefits of utilizing variable speed pumps (VSPs) in water supply systems are reported. A simple water distribution network simulation is carried out by EPANET and Bentley HAMMER models to examine variable speed operation. It was found that using VSPs could control and improve performance of the water distribution systems. Where the potential ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Safety Considerations at Anaerobic Digestion Plants

    Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes which naturally breakdown organic matter to eventually produce biogas - a methane rich gas which is burned to produce both heat and electricity. The methane can also be used as vehicle fuel or injected into the gas grid. The industry is growing fast and is forecast to continue to do so with many farmers adding bio-gas plants alongside their ...

  • Germany/Eislingen - Permanent leakage monitoring is the fastest way to reduce leakage - Case study

    The town of Eislingen in Southern Germany has practiced Active Leakage Control for many years with a team of two equipped with a ground microphone and correlator who drive around in a van searching for leaks. As many of the pipes are one hundred years they had a good success rate often finding leaks. With two hundred and forty kilometers in the network, there is a large area for one team to cover ...


    By Gutermann AG

  • Comparing Leakage Performance using the Frontier Approach

    The choice of the most appropriate indicator to use to compare leakage performance between companies or zones has been the focus of much research and study. The IWA Water Loss Task Force made recommendations (Lambert, 2000) about standardising the terminology and the water balance and then went on to show the short comings of some performance measures. It introduced the concept of the unavoidable ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Leakage estimation in developing country water networks based on water balance, minimum night flow and component analysis methods

    Estimating leakage in developing countries’ water networks is challenging as accurate records are needed. Three leakage estimation methods were compared to ascertain which was most suitable for such networks. The factors accounting for the differences in application of these methods to water networks were also ascertained. The water balance and component analysis methods were compared with the ...


    By IWA Publishing

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