water measurement system Articles

  • Closed Circuit Coolers: Design with winter in mind

    When outside temperatures fall below freezing, water inevitably forms into ice. Open cooling towers can be susceptible to freezing due to their inherent nature of operation. As a result, ice formation becomes a subject of management, not elimination. Fortunately, there are alternative solutions. Closed circuit coolers are used for a multitude of niche applications, but are ideal for evaporative ...


    By Evapco Inc.

  • Performance-Based Measurement Systems

    Many of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) methods used to monitor air, water and soil for environmental contaminants prescribe step-by-step details on how the chemical analysis must be conducted and prohibit any deviations or variations. The EPA has recognized that monitoring equipment and technology have improved tremendously over the last few years; that environmental media do not ...


    By WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

  • Water Level Measurements-Part 1

    Confused about which instrumentation to use in your water level monitoring system? In-Situ offers two categories of pressure sensors for water level measurements: absolute or non-vented sensors, and gauged or vented sensors. They look the same and both measure pressure and water level, but they have drastically different applications, outputs and accuracy. The absolute (or non-vented) water level ...


    By In-Situ, Inc.

  • Water safety planning for small water supply systems: the framework and control measures

    A water safety plan (WSP) is a preventive comprehensive risk assessment and management approach to ensuring the safety of a drinking water supply from source to tap for public health protection. The concept was introduced in the last decade in international guidance documents and has been applied widely across a varied range of water supply systems, particularly, the public water utilities and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Strategic security measures for water infrastructure

    As the 10th anniversary of the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks is fast approaching, the United States (U.S.) has no definite information of terror threat.  According to the systematic approaches of risk assessment and concise intelligence analysis presented in the book entitled, "Risk Assessment for Water Infrastructure Safety and Security" (hereafter, the "RAWISS book"), the terrorists ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Real-time Total Microbial Measurement For Water Distribution Systems

    A well-managed water distribution system is essential for maintaining a healthy water supply. The World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority on health (World Health Organization, 2008), has compiled the Water Safety Plan which reflects this. With over 2.3 million deaths per year caused by water born diseases (Davidson, et al., 2005), safeguarding water systems is of ...


    By LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.

  • Reliability assessment of water distribution systems with statistical entropy and other surrogate measures

    There is ever increasing commercial and regulatory pressure to minimise the cost of water distribution networks even as the demand for them keeps on growing. But cost minimizing is only one of the demands placed on network design. Satisfactory networks are required to operate above a minimum level even if they experience failure of components. Reliable hydraulic performance can be achieved if ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Measurement in Reclaimed Water

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is an emerging concern for wastewater reclamation and reuse communities since DON may react with disinfectants to form carcinogenic nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (DBP) (e.g., haloacetonitriles, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) and to affect the speciation of currently regulated DBP (trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids). Also, DON is present in proteins that ...

  • New Process Gas Analyzer for the Measurement of Water Vapor

    KEYWORDS TDLAS, WMS, Laser Spectroscopy, Water Vapor Measurement, Gas Analyzer ABSTRACT A new analyzer for the measurement of water vapor concentration based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. The water-vapor line at 1854-nm was selected for the measurement, and the performance of the system was evaluated on different ...

  • Using FTIR spectroscopy to measure hydrocarbon pollution in water

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF’s 2015 Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water report almost 700 million people around the world don’t have access to clean drinking water [1]. Poor water quality is beginning to return to the developed world too. The strain of population growth, intensified agricultural practices and continued industrial expansion have are ...


    By Specac Limited

  • Water Pressure Measurement with Time Domain Reflectometry Cables

    Attributes of the remote measurement of piezometric water pressure and water level with time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques are investigated. The evaluation includes a two-wire system for unusually small riser tubes as well as parallel wire and air-filled or hollow coaxial cable for typical installations. Comparison of TDR cable and commercial pressure transducer technology shows coaxial ...


    By ASTM International

  • Research on PWM applied in water turbidity measurement

    In this paper, three common measuring methods for the principles of water turbidity, namely, scattering, transmission and the ratio method are introduced. A method combined with modulation and demodulation techniques based on pulse width modulation (PWM) pulse for turbidity measurement using light intensity modulation is proposed. The experimental system that is, the realizing circuit of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Measuring enthalpy to calculate efficiency

    Summary This application note describes in detail how you can calculate the gain in efficiency of a direct exchange air conditioning system before and after treatment with the SRA. The physics underlying the method are explained. Introduction Air comprises gasses and water moisture. The gasses are mostly nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%). The amount of water ...


    By Power Knot LLC

  • Chlorine Theory & Measurement

    Chlorine, dissolved in liquid is one of the most effective and economical semi-killers for the treatment of water to make it potable or safe to drink. Chlorine's powerful disinfectant qualities come from its ability to bond with and destroy the outer surfaces of bacteria and viruses. Drinking water chlorination is one of the most widely used methods to safeguard chinking water supplies. In ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • ppb Dissolved oxygen measurement

    Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) measurement is one indicator of water quality because oxygen is a common element contributing to corrosion reactions. This corrosion reaction provides the need for low level D.O. control since dissolved oxygen is responsible for costly replacement of piping and equipment by corrosive attack on metah. what is Dissolved Oxygen? Dissolved axygan (D.O.f is the ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Measuring Pressure and Vacuum Correctly

    Pumps and systems are installed, started, operated, and many times, forgotten. When a problem arises, it’s recommended to install a discharge pressure gauge and suction vacuum gauge on the system. These gauges should be installed near the suction inlet and discharge outlet of the pump. These gauges are usually installed properly, recorded, and along with a pump speed measurement can be ...


    By Gorman-Rupp Co.

  • Contact-free indirect measurement

    The non-contact mode of measurement is very interesting for hygienic applications in the food-, pharmaceutical- and cosmetics industry, as well as for industrial applications with thick, adhesive and solid containing liquids. Experience has shown that conventional volumetric flow meters quickly come to their limit, while other measuring procedures are often very complex and/or are not suitable ...


    By Lutz Pumpen GmbH

  • Cycle chemistry pH measurement

    pH measurement in high purity water has met with variable success. The high resistivity of pure water, the vulnerability to contamination, the variability of reference electrodes and additional temperature effects converge to make tins a particularly challenging measurement. Overcoming these obstacles requires a thorough understanding of the potential problems and their systematic solution. ...


    By SnowPure Water Technologies

  • Guide to Measuring Particles in Oil

    Particle counting is a critical aspect of any machine conditioning program and there are many tools out there available to monitor and track the quantity and severity of the contamination, be it due to external contamination or machine wear. The ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Online flow measurement

    Background The undershoot weir in Hohensaaten was built in 1913. It has three openings and regulates the discharge from the Oderbruch and from the Finow canal into the Hohensaaten-Friedrichsthaler-waterway. Moreover, it protects parts of the Oderbruch against Oder floods. The weir controls the waterlevels in the Havel-Oder-waterway and in the reach of Niederfinow- Hohensaaten. ...


    By The OTT Hydromet Group

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