water measuring system Articles

  • What is turbidity?

    Turbidity measures the relative clarity of a water sample. It is determined by the amount of scattering that occurs when a light source is shined through a water sample. Light scattering is caused by increased concentrations of suspended particles in water that are not individually visible to the naked eye, which can give the water a cloudy appearance. This parameter is used as a general ...


    By MANTECH

  • Using Anaerobic Biomass Digestion to Produce Hydrogen and Biofuel

    For many years, hydrogen has been considered as an alternative to fossil fuels. Now, Scientists are aiming to develop an environmentally friendly method to produce hydrogen from biomass by optimizing anaerobic digestion systems.1 Climate change, dwindling fuel resources and energy prices have spearheaded intensive efforts to detect and optimize ...


    By Edinburgh Instruments Ltd

  • Automated Titration Analysis Enhances Productivity - White Paper

    Multi-Parameter Analysis and Enhanced Productivity by the Consolidation of Inorganic Wet Chemistry Methods Summary Multi-tasking and time allocations are key components to running an efficient laboratory and decreasing the cost per analysis for pH, conductivity, alkalinity, chloride, fluoride and ammonia.  The cost of analysis has risen over the years while ...


    By MANTECH

  • Development and Application of Oxygen Demand Testing using Industrial Effluent - Case Study

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop capacity and protocols for oxygen demand testing that can be used for instruction and research within the BioScience Technology program. For application purposes we chose the PeCOD® Analyzer which offers a unique nanotechnology-based approach to Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis. Background ...


    By MANTECH

  • Performance-Based Measurement Systems

    Many of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) methods used to monitor air, water and soil for environmental contaminants prescribe step-by-step details on how the chemical analysis must be conducted and prohibit any deviations or variations. The EPA has recognized that monitoring equipment and technology have improved tremendously over the last few years; that environmental media do not ...


    By WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

  • Water Level Measurements-Part 1

    Confused about which instrumentation to use in your water level monitoring system? In-Situ offers two categories of pressure sensors for water level measurements: absolute or non-vented sensors, and gauged or vented sensors. They look the same and both measure pressure and water level, but they have drastically different applications, outputs and accuracy. The absolute (or non-vented) water level ...


    By In-Situ, Inc.

  • Strategic security measures for water infrastructure

    As the 10th anniversary of the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks is fast approaching, the United States (U.S.) has no definite information of terror threat.  According to the systematic approaches of risk assessment and concise intelligence analysis presented in the book entitled, "Risk Assessment for Water Infrastructure Safety and Security" (hereafter, the "RAWISS book"), the terrorists ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Real-time Total Microbial Measurement For Water Distribution Systems

    A well-managed water distribution system is essential for maintaining a healthy water supply. The World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority on health (World Health Organization, 2008), has compiled the Water Safety Plan which reflects this. With over 2.3 million deaths per year caused by water born diseases (Davidson, et al., 2005), safeguarding water systems is of ...


    By LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.

  • Reliability assessment of water distribution systems with statistical entropy and other surrogate measures

    There is ever increasing commercial and regulatory pressure to minimise the cost of water distribution networks even as the demand for them keeps on growing. But cost minimizing is only one of the demands placed on network design. Satisfactory networks are required to operate above a minimum level even if they experience failure of components. Reliable hydraulic performance can be achieved if ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water Pressure Measurement with Time Domain Reflectometry Cables

    Attributes of the remote measurement of piezometric water pressure and water level with time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques are investigated. The evaluation includes a two-wire system for unusually small riser tubes as well as parallel wire and air-filled or hollow coaxial cable for typical installations. Comparison of TDR cable and commercial pressure transducer technology shows coaxial ...


    By ASTM International

  • Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Measurement in Reclaimed Water

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is an emerging concern for wastewater reclamation and reuse communities since DON may react with disinfectants to form carcinogenic nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (DBP) (e.g., haloacetonitriles, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) and to affect the speciation of currently regulated DBP (trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids). Also, DON is present in proteins that ...

  • New Process Gas Analyzer for the Measurement of Water Vapor

    KEYWORDS TDLAS, WMS, Laser Spectroscopy, Water Vapor Measurement, Gas Analyzer ABSTRACT A new analyzer for the measurement of water vapor concentration based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. The water-vapor line at 1854-nm was selected for the measurement, and the performance of the system was evaluated on different ...

  • Research on PWM applied in water turbidity measurement

    In this paper, three common measuring methods for the principles of water turbidity, namely, scattering, transmission and the ratio method are introduced. A method combined with modulation and demodulation techniques based on pulse width modulation (PWM) pulse for turbidity measurement using light intensity modulation is proposed. The experimental system that is, the realizing circuit of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Using FTIR spectroscopy to measure hydrocarbon pollution in water

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF’s 2015 Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water report almost 700 million people around the world don’t have access to clean drinking water [1]. Poor water quality is beginning to return to the developed world too. The strain of population growth, intensified agricultural practices and continued industrial expansion have are ...


    By Specac Limited

  • Measuring enthalpy to calculate efficiency

    Summary This application note describes in detail how you can calculate the gain in efficiency of a direct exchange air conditioning system before and after treatment with the SRA. The physics underlying the method are explained. Introduction Air comprises gasses and water moisture. The gasses are mostly nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%). The amount of water ...


    By Power Knot LLC

  • Chlorine Theory & Measurement

    Chlorine, dissolved in liquid is one of the most effective and economical semi-killers for the treatment of water to make it potable or safe to drink. Chlorine's powerful disinfectant qualities come from its ability to bond with and destroy the outer surfaces of bacteria and viruses. Drinking water chlorination is one of the most widely used methods to safeguard chinking water supplies. In ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • ppb Dissolved oxygen measurement

    Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) measurement is one indicator of water quality because oxygen is a common element contributing to corrosion reactions. This corrosion reaction provides the need for low level D.O. control since dissolved oxygen is responsible for costly replacement of piping and equipment by corrosive attack on metah. what is Dissolved Oxygen? Dissolved axygan (D.O.f is the ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Measuring Pressure and Vacuum Correctly

    Pumps and systems are installed, started, operated, and many times, forgotten. When a problem arises, it’s recommended to install a discharge pressure gauge and suction vacuum gauge on the system. These gauges should be installed near the suction inlet and discharge outlet of the pump. These gauges are usually installed properly, recorded, and along with a pump speed measurement can be ...


    By Gorman-Rupp Co.

  • Cycle chemistry pH measurement

    pH measurement in high purity water has met with variable success. The high resistivity of pure water, the vulnerability to contamination, the variability of reference electrodes and additional temperature effects converge to make tins a particularly challenging measurement. Overcoming these obstacles requires a thorough understanding of the potential problems and their systematic solution. ...


    By SnowPure Water Technologies

  • Contact-free indirect measurement

    The non-contact mode of measurement is very interesting for hygienic applications in the food-, pharmaceutical- and cosmetics industry, as well as for industrial applications with thick, adhesive and solid containing liquids. Experience has shown that conventional volumetric flow meters quickly come to their limit, while other measuring procedures are often very complex and/or are not suitable ...


    By Lutz Pumpen GmbH

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