water pipe Articles

  • Water Treatment System Types and Their Benefits

    Water is one of the most important utilities in the world. It’s used for bathing, cooking, washing clothes, cleaning dishes, and drinking. If you get your water from the city, you trust your tap water to be clean and healthy. It goes through a treatment plant before it reaches you, so it’s perfectly purified when it reaches you—right? Unfortunately, this isn’t always the ...

  • 13 surprising tools a plumber needs

    What tools does a plumber need in their tool box? Professional installers tell us they use these top 13 plumbing tools time and again. Our list of surprising plumbing tools goes beyond your day-to-day staples of a good hacksaw, a set of well-engineered adjustable spanners, basin spanners, screwdrivers and a decent tape measure. Great all-rounder plumbing tools ...


    By Kingspan Environmental Ltd

  • Effective Equipment Grounding

    The quality of the electrical wiring and grounding in a facility containing sensitive electronic equipment is one of the most important and least understood aspects of electrical power systems. Properly designed and maintained wiring and grounding systems are necessary to ensure personnel safety and protection of data and telecommunications equipment. Effective grounding creates an electrical ...


    By EPG Companies Inc.

  • Biocorrosion in drinking water pipes

    Copper is widely used in drinking water distribution systems due to its relatively low cost and favorable mechanical properties. However, copper corrosion may generate copper concentrations exceeding the thresholds prescribed by international drinking water standards. In-situ measurements performed in an actual system found that the copper mass released under flowing water conditions (pipe ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Risk management for water supply pipes

    In this paper, the risk of water supply systems as a combination of hydraulic analyses (consequence) and failure probability of pipelines based on the actual condition is discussed. On the one hand, a stepwise closing of pipelines calculates the influence on customer's supply which represents the importance of a pipe. On the other hand, based on existing failure statistics, age and material ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Unique technology for monitoring piped water

    INTELLITECT WATER has launched a unique, highly innovative drinking water monitoring technology that will revolutionise the delivery of drinking water. The new technology monitors the quality of water in pipeline distribution networks and for the first time provides reliable data to protect the integrity of the water quality, to enhance customer satisfaction and to improve operational efficiency. ...


    By Intellitect Water Ltd

  • On the prediction of underground water pipe failures: zero inflation and pipe-specific effects

    The prediction of pipe failures in water distribution systems is an essential planning tool for water companies. Previous methods focus on the prediction of either future failure numbers or aspects of pipe condition. However, most of these only predict at the level of large pipe groups (of similar characteristics) and often cannot provide uncertainty bounds. Here, a new statistical method is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Review of rehabilitation strategies for water distribution pipes

    Effective rehabilitation strategies for water pipes play a very important role in both sustaining the reliability of water distribution systems and reducing costs. Pipe breakage prediction models provide a platform for effective rehabilitation strategies. The strength of the rehabilitation strategies is just an extension to those predictive models. There are different techniques and methods for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of unidirectional flushing in water distribution pipes

    In this study unidirectional flushing (UDF) was conducted to improve the effectiveness of deposit removal from internal pipe walls and to provide information on pipe networks to enable operators to implement flushing in field. Four ductile cast iron pipes with epoxy-lined and cement-lined were selected for the practice of UDF. Water pressure was measured using a data logger equipped with a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A practical decision scheme for the prioritization of water pipe replacement

    Most water distribution networks are assemblies of buried elements which makes their diagnosis complex and requires implementing an asset management (AM) policy of actions performed in the short, medium and long terms. To implement such an AM, decision makers must diagnose the condition of the asset by developing specific tools for establishing priorities between assets and plan the actions ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Organic compounds migrating from plastic pipes into water

    Case studies were carried out to identify potential chemical contaminants migrating to drinking water from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or polyethylene (PE) pipes, available on the Polish market. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Analysis of organotin compounds in water in contact with PVC pipes from different manufacturers found variability: ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Low Down on Pipes: A Look at Municipal Water

    We manufacture our portable remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and pipe crawlers for a variety of different industries and applications. Due to their robust design and versatility, Deep Trekker products have proven to be the ideal tools for many professionals and ...


    By Deep Trekker Inc.

  • Preventing & Thawing Frozen Pipes

    A “how-to” guide on preventing and thawing frozen pipes. As temperatures drop below freezing around the country, it’s important to be informed of the cold weather’s effect on your water pipes. When temperatures are below freezing, pipes in unheated areas are subject to freezing causing messy, and often expensive issues. Just one burst pipe running at 4-8 ...


    By WaterSignal

  • Quadratic approximations for pipe friction

    This paper develops quadratic approximations to the classical models of Darcy–Weisbach and Hazen–Williams for frictional head loss in water pipes. Key elements of the technique are selecting the approximation domain and minimizing the relative error. A comparison for individual pipes over a range of diameter, roughness, and Reynolds number showed that the approximation provides ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Characteristics of pipe-scale in the pipes of an urban drinking water distribution system in eastern China

    Pipes that carry drinking water have gradually aged. Events occurring with increasing frequency, such as substandard water quality in residential taps, red water, and black water, reveal the deterioration of the chemical stability of a drinking water distribution system (DWDS). Pipes in the DWDS serving City S, located in eastern China, were sampled to analyze the concentration and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Influence of porous media on intrusion rate into water distribution pipes

    Untreated water can intrude into water distribution systems through pipe leaks and cracks when negative pressure events occur inside drinking water pipelines. The orifice equation is typically used for calculation of intrusion flow rate, which ignores the impact of the soil surrounding the pipeline. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the effect of porous ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Probabilistic modeling of cast iron water distribution pipe corrosion

    Due to the random nature of the corrosion process, stochastic approaches are more appropriate to mathematically represent the corrosion depths on metallic objects. Based on data from 202 pipes, a model was developed to compute the probability of finding maximal corrosion depth in a given interval of values for 150-mm cast iron water distribution pipes. Only the age of pipes was taken into ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • PP pipe fitting mold, PPH belling fitting mould, water supply

    PP pipe fitting mould  PP pipe fitting mould can be divided as below series: 1. PP belling pipe fitting mould  2. PP drainage pipe fitting mould 3. ...


    By Focare Mould Co.,Ltd.

  • Development of central force optimization for pipe-sizing of water distribution networks

    Due to the economic crisis and water scarcity happening in recent years, many researchers have focused on the water distribution network optimization problem. On this specified subject, all recent research has applied stochastic meta-heuristic algorithms to solve these sets of problems. In this study, the application of a novel deterministic physically inspired heuristic algorithm for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Mean values of water pipe breakage rates around the world and in geographical areas

    One of the most frequently used parameters in water supply systems is the pipe breakage rate, which is often expressed by λ. Its definition can be deterministic or probabilistic, but both definitions lead to the same value under certain assumptions. This parameter can be defined per unit time only or per unit time and per unit length of the pipes (using a kilometre as the unit of ...


    By IWA Publishing

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