water reference standard Articles

  • How to identify issues in water quality

    Water quality can mean different things to different people and therefore depends on what standard of quality one is looking for, for example, water may be fine for fish to live in but lack the quality required for human consumption. To measure the quality of water accurately, tests are carried out to identify several key indicators. These characteristics are then compared ...


    By Aquaread Limited

  • Recent Federal Developments

    TSCA/FIFRA EPA Extends Comment Period For Draft Guidance For Pesticide Registrants On Notifications, Non-notifications, And Minor Formulation Amendments: On October 5, 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a notice of extension of the comment period for the draft guidance  ...


    By Bergeson & Campbell, P.C.

  • Fifteen years of experience with standardized reference radiometers for controlling low-pressure UV disinfection plants for drinking water

    The only practicable way to control the disinfection capability of a UV disinfection plant for drinking water all the time is to use a UV radiometer. According to the Austrian Standard M5873, this plant radiometer is a standardized part of each plant. The standard defines a so-called reference radiometer (RRM) as well. This is necessary because a plant radiometer has to be controlled ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Is it time to upgrade the PM2.5 federal reference method?

    The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) Federal Reference Method (FRM) has in many respects been a great success. When the method was implemented, there was some doubt that the state and local monitoring agencies that routinely provide air quality data would be able to manage a program, which often distinguishes one location from another by just a few μg/m3. As it turns out, data from the FRM ...

  • ASTM Standards Help Meet Need for Clean Water

    The new ASTM Water Portal provides a single access point to standards and related information about ASTM International’s diverse committees working to protect and monitor this vital global resource. Clean and safe water is the underpinning of the quality of life for people around the world. Global economies depend on water, whether it’s to support the manufacturing of goods ...


    By ASTM International

  • Stability and accuracy of CIRAS-2 Water Vapor (reference humidity): control option 1

    Summary Rapid large-scale fluctuations of carbon dioxide and water vapor, although unnatural and artificial in the plant world, are desirable attributes for gas exchange systems from a sampling efficiency standpoint. As PP Systems’ benchmark IRGA system for gas exchange and photosynthesis research, CIRAS-2 was designed for and expected to have exceptional response times to ...


    By PP Systems

  • Quantification of uncertainty in reference evapotranspiration climate change signals in Belgium

    Projections of evapotranspiration form the basis of future runoff and water availability assessment in a climate change context. The scarcity of data or insufficiency of time/funds compels the application of simple reference evapotranspiration (ETo) methods requiring less meteorological inputs for ETo projections which adds uncertainty to the projected changes. This study investigates ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Estimating models for reference evapotranspiration with core meteorological parameters via path analysis

    Accurate estimation and reliable universal performance of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) obtained from a few meteorological parameters are important for the rational planning of agricultural water resources and the effective management of water in irrigated regions. Meteorological data in southern China were used to calculate ET0 using the standard ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Types of Environmental Standards

    Different kinds of environmental standards can serve quite different purposes in environmental policy. This note outlines these differences Ambient Standards Ambient standards set maximum allowable levels of a pollutant in the receiving medium (air, water and soil). Ambient standards can offer a simple method of establishing priorities since areas (or stream lengths) which ...


  • Asbestos in water? How to address ‘non-standard’ samples of industrial and other effluents

    Biohazards and other interferences complicate the employment of off-the-shelf asbestos in water methods by traditional TEM techniques. Laboratories must implement creative strategies to prepare and analyze these samples to produce meaningful analytical data. Laboratory and personnel safety have to be considered before sample handling. The interferences also greatly diminished any reasonable ...

  • ASHRAE Standard 188P: Prevention of Legionellosis Associated with Building Water Systems

    For Presentation at the AWT 2011 Convention and Exposition  The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) has developed a proposed Standard Practice that specifies what is required to prevent legionellosis associated with building water systems. Standard 188P is a “Practices” standard – not a “Design” or ...


    By Phigenics, LLC

  • A Look at the Impact of Proposed Water Standard to Prevent Legionnaires` Disease

    From the standpoint of water treatment industry experts, failure to prevent legionellosis (or Legionnaires’ Disease) is the most significant water treatment problem today. Essentially every case of the disease is the result of exposure to inadequately managed building watersystems, and both utility and potable water systems can be the source of the hazard (i.e., Legionella bacteria). In ...


    By Phigenics, LLC

  • Editor’s perspective - solvent cleanup standards

    Risk-assessment science is a critical tenet of the remediation industry, as it is the underlying basis of the majority of cleanup work performed. However, risk-assessment science is, for the most part, poorly understood by a large portion of environmental professionals. Most seasoned professionals understand the basic risk-assessment concepts related to the dose-response and exposure duration ...

  • Enhesa MENA Expert, Sanaa Chakibi, explains Saudi Arabia’s Ambient Water Quality Standards on EHS Journal

    Saudi Arabia’s Standards on Ambient Water Quality seek to establish a framework to enable sustainable management of ambient water quality; protect the water supply and natural aquatic environment; and provide a basis for the restoration of waters used for recreational, agricultural, industrial, potable, and ecological ...

  • Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices

    Summary Wastewater treatment in the United States is a major cornerstone of efforts to keep the nation’s waters clean. Sewage sludge is the solid, semisolid, or liquid residue generated during treatment of domestic sewage. Since the early 1970s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the wastewater treatment industry have promoted recycling of sewage sludge. With the prohibition of ...


  • Water Reuse

    Water is an increasingly scarce resource for much of the World's population. Global warming, an increasing world population and generally increasing incomes mean the demand for water is likely to rise further. If current trends continue, we will use 40% more water by 2024 than we do now. In industrialised countries much of the water used for non-potable purposes such as industrial applications, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Making manufacturing more sustainable - Subcommittee E60.13 lays groundwork for standards

    A new ASTM International subcommittee has begun work on standards that address sustainable manufacturing. Sometimes zero is not zero. Case in point: Manufacturer X sends no byproducts or waste to landfills or to incinerators. Manufacturer Y doesn’t dump waste in landfills, yet it does opt to burn refuse for energy. Both claim they have “zero landfill” programs. ...


    By ASTM International

  • Ensuring Water Quality in Africa

    Water is essential for life, and “access to safe water is a fundamental human and, therefore, a basic human right.” With this statement and his address on World Water Day in 2001, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan put a spotlight on what continues to be a global problem: clean water. This year completes the UN “Water for Life” international decade for ...


    By ASTM International

  • Oil and grease in waste water

    Determination of oil and grease in waste water according to Standard Methods AWWA 5520 This Application Note describes the extraction and determination of oil and grease from waste water samples following Standard Methods 5520 part D (Soxhlet Extraction Method). “Oil and grease” is defined as any material recovered as a substance soluble in the solvent. Therefore, compounds ...


    By BÜCHI Labortechnik AG

  • Challenges for bathing in rivers in terms of compliance with coliform standards. Case study in a large urbanized basin (das Velhas River, Brazil)

    This paper presents a case study on the prospects of bathing in a large water course (das Velhas River, Brazil), which crosses the important metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (25 municipalities), receiving several point and diffuse discharges. The studies were carried out based on a mathematical simulation of thermotolerant coliforms over 227 km of the river, using an adaptation of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

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