water reference standard Articles

  • Is it time to upgrade the PM2.5 federal reference method?

    The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) Federal Reference Method (FRM) has in many respects been a great success. When the method was implemented, there was some doubt that the state and local monitoring agencies that routinely provide air quality data would be able to manage a program, which often distinguishes one location from another by just a few μg/m3. As it turns out, data from the FRM ...

  • Stability and accuracy of CIRAS-2 Water Vapor (reference humidity): control option 1

    Summary Rapid large-scale fluctuations of carbon dioxide and water vapor, although unnatural and artificial in the plant world, are desirable attributes for gas exchange systems from a sampling efficiency standpoint. As PP Systems’ benchmark IRGA system for gas exchange and photosynthesis research, CIRAS-2 was designed for and expected to have exceptional response times to ...


    By PP Systems

  • ASTM Standards Help Meet Need for Clean Water

    The new ASTM Water Portal provides a single access point to standards and related information about ASTM International’s diverse committees working to protect and monitor this vital global resource. Clean and safe water is the underpinning of the quality of life for people around the world. Global economies depend on water, whether it’s to support the manufacturing of goods ...


    By ASTM International

  • Types of Environmental Standards

    Different kinds of environmental standards can serve quite different purposes in environmental policy. This note outlines these differences Ambient Standards Ambient standards set maximum allowable levels of a pollutant in the receiving medium (air, water and soil). Ambient standards can offer a simple method of establishing priorities since areas (or stream lengths) which ...


  • Asbestos in water? How to address ‘non-standard’ samples of industrial and other effluents

    Biohazards and other interferences complicate the employment of off-the-shelf asbestos in water methods by traditional TEM techniques. Laboratories must implement creative strategies to prepare and analyze these samples to produce meaningful analytical data. Laboratory and personnel safety have to be considered before sample handling. The interferences also greatly diminished any reasonable ...

  • ASHRAE Standard 188P: Prevention of Legionellosis Associated with Building Water Systems

    For Presentation at the AWT 2011 Convention and Exposition  The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) has developed a proposed Standard Practice that specifies what is required to prevent legionellosis associated with building water systems. Standard 188P is a “Practices” standard – not a “Design” or ...


    By Phigenics, LLC

  • A Look at the Impact of Proposed Water Standard to Prevent Legionnaires` Disease

    From the standpoint of water treatment industry experts, failure to prevent legionellosis (or Legionnaires’ Disease) is the most significant water treatment problem today. Essentially every case of the disease is the result of exposure to inadequately managed building watersystems, and both utility and potable water systems can be the source of the hazard (i.e., Legionella bacteria). In ...


    By Phigenics, LLC

  • Editor’s perspective - solvent cleanup standards

    Risk-assessment science is a critical tenet of the remediation industry, as it is the underlying basis of the majority of cleanup work performed. However, risk-assessment science is, for the most part, poorly understood by a large portion of environmental professionals. Most seasoned professionals understand the basic risk-assessment concepts related to the dose-response and exposure duration ...

  • Enhesa MENA Expert, Sanaa Chakibi, explains Saudi Arabia’s Ambient Water Quality Standards on EHS Journal

    Saudi Arabia’s Standards on Ambient Water Quality seek to establish a framework to enable sustainable management of ambient water quality; protect the water supply and natural aquatic environment; and provide a basis for the restoration of waters used for recreational, agricultural, industrial, potable, and ecological ...

  • Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices

    Summary Wastewater treatment in the United States is a major cornerstone of efforts to keep the nation’s waters clean. Sewage sludge is the solid, semisolid, or liquid residue generated during treatment of domestic sewage. Since the early 1970s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the wastewater treatment industry have promoted recycling of sewage sludge. With the prohibition of ...


  • Water Reuse

    Water is an increasingly scarce resource for much of the World's population. Global warming, an increasing world population and generally increasing incomes mean the demand for water is likely to rise further. If current trends continue, we will use 40% more water by 2024 than we do now. In industrialised countries much of the water used for non-potable purposes such as industrial applications, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Making manufacturing more sustainable - Subcommittee E60.13 lays groundwork for standards

    A new ASTM International subcommittee has begun work on standards that address sustainable manufacturing. Sometimes zero is not zero. Case in point: Manufacturer X sends no byproducts or waste to landfills or to incinerators. Manufacturer Y doesn’t dump waste in landfills, yet it does opt to burn refuse for energy. Both claim they have “zero landfill” programs. ...


    By ASTM International

  • Challenges for bathing in rivers in terms of compliance with coliform standards. Case study in a large urbanized basin (das Velhas River, Brazil)

    This paper presents a case study on the prospects of bathing in a large water course (das Velhas River, Brazil), which crosses the important metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (25 municipalities), receiving several point and diffuse discharges. The studies were carried out based on a mathematical simulation of thermotolerant coliforms over 227 km of the river, using an adaptation of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Validation of a new standardized test method for the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca: Determining the chronic effects of silver in sediment

    Environment Canada has developed a new 42 day sediment toxicity test method that includes a reproduction test endpoint with the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. Due to concerns that existing standard methodologies, where adults are transferred to a water‐only exposure before release of their first brood at day 28, will lead to internal contaminant depuration and loss of sensitivity, the EC ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Ensuring Water Quality in Africa

    Water is essential for life, and “access to safe water is a fundamental human and, therefore, a basic human right.” With this statement and his address on World Water Day in 2001, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan put a spotlight on what continues to be a global problem: clean water. This year completes the UN “Water for Life” international decade for ...


    By ASTM International

  • Water Reuse Terminology

    All water on Earth is used and reused, over and over, in an elegant water cycle. Water reuse occurs in various ways on a daily basis. It happens when a community’s treated wastewater is discharged into rivers or other water bodies. If you live in a community downstream of another, chances are you are reusing water from an upstream town. Scientifically proven advances in water technology ...


    By WateReuse

  • Legislation: The Eu Directive On Industrial Emissions: Squaring The Circle of Integrated, Harmonised and Ambitious Technology Standards?

    Keywords: Integrated pollution control, technology standards, emissions trading, h|ar-monisation, information exchange, comitology The EU Directive on Industrial Emissions1 reforms the twice amended, consolidated EU Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control.2 This legislation note critiques key provisions of the new Directive, and comments on whether its main purposes - ...


  • Methods of Water Purification

    This article is excerpted from 'Pure Water Handbook' published by Osmonics®, Inc. of Minnetonka, Minnesota USA and is printed with permission of Osmonics, Inc. Water treatment can be defined as any procedure or method used to alter the chemical composition or natural 'behavior' of a water supply. Water supplies are classified as either surface water or groundwater. The majority of public or ...

  • Detecting Mercury in Water

    Determination of Mercury (Hg) in Water by Hand-Held, Portable Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence SpectrometryWater is the most familiar and most abundant compound on Earth, making up 71% of its surface area.[1]It is a vital component for all known forms of life and is the aquatic habitat for thousands of species of microalgae, fish and shellfish. [2] With the presence of running water in our ...


    By Arizona Instrument LLC

  • Water Quality Models

    ' In order to determine the impacts of a particular discharge on ambient water quality, it is usually necessary to model the diffusion and dispersion of the discharge in the relevant water body. The approach applies both to new discharges and to upgrading of existing sources. This note provides guidance on models that may be applicable in the context of typical Bank projects.' Introduction ...


    By The World Bank

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