water sanitation Articles

  • Mitigating the global water and sanitation challenges

    The provision of Water and Sanitation Services is of paramount importance as it provides the foundation for sustainable development. Global trends show provision of water and sanitation services is still inadequate: 1.1 billion people have no access to safe water services, and 2.6 billion have no access adequate sanitation services the provision of water and sanitation services in the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries: Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies 2nd Edition

    This second, revised edition of the Compendium presents a huge range of information on sanitation systems and technologies in one volume. By ordering and structuring tried and tested technologies into once concise document, the reader is provided with a useful planning tool for making more informed decisions. Part 1 describes different system configurations for a variety of contexts. Part 2 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Bridging the Sanitation Gap

    As the development community celebrates being on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals drinking water targets, it will be too easy to overlook the fact that sanitation lags far behind. More than a billion people worldwide still have no access to a toilet. The immediate health impact is obvious, but the 'sanitation gap' also undermines other development objectives because of its effect ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Heat Sanitization Basics

    Even small numbers of bacteria are a problem for critical water systems like pharmaceutical USP water, dialysis water, and water for ...


    By SnowPure Water Technologies

  • Building Sustainable Sanitation Systems

    A low cost system of resource management such as composting toilets is helping to mitigate many of Haiti’s social and ecological challenges. The Caribbean Republic of Haiti — the poorest, most environmentally degraded country in the Western Hemisphere with a population of about 10 million — is a case study in forestry and soil fertility mismanagement. A colonial ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Scenarios for environmental sanitation in Brazil

    Public sector planning, especially in developing countries, is both a theoretical and methodological challenge that is particularly important with regard to the field of environmental sanitation. This field is dominated by a technical vision that often ignores the complexity of the real world and the human dimension influenced by its actions, as opposed to a strategic one. This paper discusses ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine

    For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. It also has some unpleasant byproducts. Together, however, these two substances can ...

  • Assessing sanitation service levels

    Conventional sanitation ladders rank sanitation in increasing complexity of technological options. However, sanitation improvement is not as straightforward as the concept of “a ladder” with incremental improvements, might suggest. For example, from the user perspective, a VIP toilet may in some circumstances be a better option than a septic tank system. There is a wide gap between ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • MBUJI-MAYI : Sanitation Status

    Sanitation provision in Mbuji-Mayi (DRC’s third-largest city) is grossly deficient, as in most cities in sub-Saharan Africa: most people do not have access to a hygienic toilet; large amounts of faecal waste are discharged to the environment without adequate treatment; this is likely to have major impacts on infectious disease burden and quality of life (Hutton et al. 2007). This is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Role of small-scale independent providers in water and sanitation

    Small-scale independent providers (SSIPs) and households are good for 10?69% of the household water supply and sometimes up to 95% of the sanitation solutions in cities in developing countries. Different types of SSIP can be distinguished. They could be allowed to make a more important contribution to drinking water and sanitation in a situation where many governments cannot be the only one to ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Azerbaijan National Water Supply and Sanitation Project

    The water supply and sewer system in Azerbaijan is characterized by old, damaged and largely dysfunctional infrastructure and is financial constrained and poorly operated. This results in the level and the quality of the water supply and wastewater treatment (WWT) services especially in small towns being significantly degraded. Water shortage and the use of dirty water for drinking have ...


    By Huckbody Environmental

  • Emergence of decentralised water and sanitation systems in Melbourne, Australia

    In Melbourne, Australia, a shift is occurring in the approach to wastewater management. With increased pressure from landscape drivers such as population growth, urbanisation, and over a decade of extended drought conditions, a new model of wastewater management is being explored by Melbourne's metropolitan water utilities in the development of their latest Metropolitan Sewerage Strategy (MSS). ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Conducting surveys for water supply and sanitation in Indonesia

    Surveys can vary in cost and complexity depending upon the sample size, number of questions and degree of accuracy. But sometimes, even after huge expenditures, the results can be misleading or just plain wrong. Simple surveys to determine willingness to pay or consumer preferences can be accomplished by the local government for minimal expense and still provide ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • How to develop a concerted municipal strategy for water and sanitation

    In many developing countries, particularly in Africa, access to water supply and sanitation comes under the remit of local authorities. To assist the local contracting authorities in developing this service, programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) and the Municipal Development Partnership (MDP) have initiated and coordinated the Concerted Municipal Strategies program (CMS – water and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Disparities in access to clean water and sanitation: institutional causes

    This paper uses cross-national data from 2002 and 2004 to assess the effects of key institutional variables on the improvement of access to safe water and sanitation. Two key variables of specific interest are a country's commitment to ‘quality regulation’ and the country's long-term development path. The evidence for the impact of those factors on expanding or contracting access to water and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water Supply and Sanitation (WASH) in Harmony with Nature

    The grassy hillsides and vast forests around Rwambu wetland in south-western Uganda are not only a beautiful sight to see - it is fertile land which sustains agricultural based livelihoods, such as coffee, tea, bananas and beans. The Rwambu wetland is also a success story of integrated nature-based solutions. In the not so distant past, the people of Rwambu were up against a quickly ...


    By Wetlands International

  • Realizing the human rights to water and sanitation: A Handbook

    UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation. September 2014 Since 2010, when the United Nation General Assembly explicitly recognized the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation and the Human Rights Council reaffirmed this recognition, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation has received ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Climate change and its effect on water, sanitation and hygiene

    Climate change is global phenomenon and caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere. The main sources of greenhouse gases are due to human activities. CO2 which is a major gas causing greenhouse gas effects, has been increased by 38 percent in current level with 880 billion tons in atmosphere now. It is estimated to reach to upper limit of 935 billion tons before final ...


  • `Sites of entitlement` approach to conceptualising the right to water & sanitation

    The paper "Sites of entitlement: claim, negotiation and struggle in Mumbai" is now freely available online, ahead of its October publication in Environment and Urbanization.  In "Sites of entitlement: claim, negotiation and struggle in Mumbai", Colin McFarlane and Renu Desai argue for a ...


    By IWA Publishing

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