water sanitation Articles

  • Mitigating the global water and sanitation challenges

    The provision of Water and Sanitation Services is of paramount importance as it provides the foundation for sustainable development. Global trends show provision of water and sanitation services is still inadequate: 1.1 billion people have no access to safe water services, and 2.6 billion have no access adequate sanitation services the provision of water and sanitation services in the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries: Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies 2nd Edition

    This second, revised edition of the Compendium presents a huge range of information on sanitation systems and technologies in one volume. By ordering and structuring tried and tested technologies into once concise document, the reader is provided with a useful planning tool for making more informed decisions. Part 1 describes different system configurations for a variety of contexts. Part 2 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Heat Sanitization Basics

    Even small numbers of bacteria are a problem for critical water systems like pharmaceutical USP water, dialysis water, and water for ...


    By SnowPure Water Technologies

  • Scenarios for environmental sanitation in Brazil

    Public sector planning, especially in developing countries, is both a theoretical and methodological challenge that is particularly important with regard to the field of environmental sanitation. This field is dominated by a technical vision that often ignores the complexity of the real world and the human dimension influenced by its actions, as opposed to a strategic one. This paper discusses ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine

    For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. It also has some unpleasant byproducts. Together, however, these two substances can ...

  • Assessing sanitation service levels

    Conventional sanitation ladders rank sanitation in increasing complexity of technological options. However, sanitation improvement is not as straightforward as the concept of “a ladder” with incremental improvements, might suggest. For example, from the user perspective, a VIP toilet may in some circumstances be a better option than a septic tank system. There is a wide gap between ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • MBUJI-MAYI : Sanitation Status

    Sanitation provision in Mbuji-Mayi (DRC’s third-largest city) is grossly deficient, as in most cities in sub-Saharan Africa: most people do not have access to a hygienic toilet; large amounts of faecal waste are discharged to the environment without adequate treatment; this is likely to have major impacts on infectious disease burden and quality of life (Hutton et al. 2007). This is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Bridging the Sanitation Gap

    As the development community celebrates being on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals drinking water targets, it will be too easy to overlook the fact that sanitation lags far behind. More than a billion people worldwide still have no access to a toilet. The immediate health impact is obvious, but the 'sanitation gap' also undermines other development objectives because of its effect ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Building Sustainable Sanitation Systems

    A low cost system of resource management such as composting toilets is helping to mitigate many of Haiti’s social and ecological challenges. The Caribbean Republic of Haiti — the poorest, most environmentally degraded country in the Western Hemisphere with a population of about 10 million — is a case study in forestry and soil fertility mismanagement. A colonial ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Realizing the human rights to water and sanitation: A Handbook

    UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation. September 2014 Since 2010, when the United Nation General Assembly explicitly recognized the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation and the Human Rights Council reaffirmed this recognition, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation has received ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water Supply and Sanitation (WASH) in Harmony with Nature

    The grassy hillsides and vast forests around Rwambu wetland in south-western Uganda are not only a beautiful sight to see - it is fertile land which sustains agricultural based livelihoods, such as coffee, tea, bananas and beans. The Rwambu wetland is also a success story of integrated nature-based solutions. In the not so distant past, the people of Rwambu were up against a quickly ...


    By Wetlands International

  • `Sites of entitlement` approach to conceptualising the right to water & sanitation

    The paper "Sites of entitlement: claim, negotiation and struggle in Mumbai" is now freely available online, ahead of its October publication in Environment and Urbanization.  In "Sites of entitlement: claim, negotiation and struggle in Mumbai", Colin McFarlane and Renu Desai argue for a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Tariff structures for water and sanitation urban households: a primer

    Water tariffs are a powerful management tool. Indeed, they can be seen as a conceptually simple way to promote multiple, possibly conflicting, objectives. Those trade-offs cause discrepancies between stakeholders and may produce undesirable results. The residential urban domain is particularly sensible to those predicaments. To shed some light on the matter, this paper carries out a literature ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Technical Support Team Issues Brief: Water and Sanitation

    This issues brief summarizes main water and sanitation-related commitments made by Member States at Rio+20, different proposals for integrating water and sanitation issues into the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) framework, and some reflections from the Post-2015 Global Thematic Consultation on Water. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Estimating effects of improved drinking water and sanitation on cholera

    Demand for adequate provision of drinking-water and sanitation facilities to promote public health and economic growth is increasing in the rapidly urbanizing countries of the developing world. With a panel of data on Asia and Africa from 1990 to 2008, associations are estimated between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks, the case rates in given outbreaks, the mortality rates associated with ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Towards a research agenda for water, sanitation and antimicrobial resistance

    Clinically relevant antimicrobial resistant bacteria, genetic resistance elements, and antibiotic residues (so-called AMR) from human and animal waste are abundantly present in environmental samples. This presence could lead to human exposure to AMR. In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a Global Action Plan for Antimicrobial Resistance with one of its strategic objectives ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Climate change and its effect on water, sanitation and hygiene

    Climate change is global phenomenon and caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere. The main sources of greenhouse gases are due to human activities. CO2 which is a major gas causing greenhouse gas effects, has been increased by 38 percent in current level with 880 billion tons in atmosphere now. It is estimated to reach to upper limit of 935 billion tons before final ...


  • How to develop a concerted municipal strategy for water and sanitation

    In many developing countries, particularly in Africa, access to water supply and sanitation comes under the remit of local authorities. To assist the local contracting authorities in developing this service, programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau) and the Municipal Development Partnership (MDP) have initiated and coordinated the Concerted Municipal Strategies program (CMS – water and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Azerbaijan National Water Supply and Sanitation Project

    The water supply and sewer system in Azerbaijan is characterized by old, damaged and largely dysfunctional infrastructure and is financial constrained and poorly operated. This results in the level and the quality of the water supply and wastewater treatment (WWT) services especially in small towns being significantly degraded. Water shortage and the use of dirty water for drinking have ...


    By Huckbody Environmental

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