water sanitation systems Articles

  • Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries: Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies 2nd Edition

    This second, revised edition of the Compendium presents a huge range of information on sanitation systems and technologies in one volume. By ordering and structuring tried and tested technologies into once concise document, the reader is provided with a useful planning tool for making more informed decisions. Part 1 describes different system configurations for a variety of contexts. Part 2 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Emergence of decentralised water and sanitation systems in Melbourne, Australia

    In Melbourne, Australia, a shift is occurring in the approach to wastewater management. With increased pressure from landscape drivers such as population growth, urbanisation, and over a decade of extended drought conditions, a new model of wastewater management is being explored by Melbourne's metropolitan water utilities in the development of their latest Metropolitan Sewerage Strategy (MSS). ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Building Sustainable Sanitation Systems

    A low cost system of resource management such as composting toilets is helping to mitigate many of Haiti’s social and ecological challenges. The Caribbean Republic of Haiti — the poorest, most environmentally degraded country in the Western Hemisphere with a population of about 10 million — is a case study in forestry and soil fertility mismanagement. A colonial ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Ancient water and sanitation systems - applicability for the contemporary urban developing world

    The main objective of this paper was to discuss and evaluate the applicability of selected ancient water and sanitation systems for the contemporary developing world. This topic is relevant given information the pressing need for sustainable and cost-effective water and sanitation facilities, particularly in urban areas of the developing world and (ii) the current focus on development of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biogas Wastewater Treatment Systems by the Philippine Center for Water and Sanitation: A Community-Managed Potable Water Supply, Sanitation, & Hygiene (CPWASH) Project

    The Philippines, like many developing countries, has serious sanitation issues for both their urban and rural citizens. Specifically for rural citizens, data from 2008 estimated that 17% of this population still had no access to improved sanitation, with 14% estimated to be practicing open defecation. With much of the Philippine countryside devoted to agriculture, this is a serious concern, as ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water Supply and Sanitation (WASH) in Harmony with Nature

    The grassy hillsides and vast forests around Rwambu wetland in south-western Uganda are not only a beautiful sight to see - it is fertile land which sustains agricultural based livelihoods, such as coffee, tea, bananas and beans. The Rwambu wetland is also a success story of integrated nature-based solutions. In the not so distant past, the people of Rwambu were up against a quickly ...


    By Wetlands International

  • Survival of pathogens in drinking water plumbing systems: impact factors and sanitation options

    The objective was to determine impact factors that would allow Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila to survive sanitation measures of household drinking water systems. Therefore, different disinfectant concentrations were tested under different operating conditions in close-to-practice experiments. Particular attention was paid to the viable but non-culturable ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Ancient water and sanitation systems – applicability for the contemporary urban developing world

    The idea of implementing ancient water and wastewater technologies in the developing world is a persuasive one, since ancient systems had many features which would constitute sustainable and decentralised water and sanitation (WATSAN) provision in contemporary terminology. Latest figures indicate 2.6 billion people do not use improved sanitation and 1.1 billion practise open defecation, thus ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Azerbaijan National Water Supply and Sanitation Project

    The water supply and sewer system in Azerbaijan is characterized by old, damaged and largely dysfunctional infrastructure and is financial constrained and poorly operated. This results in the level and the quality of the water supply and wastewater treatment (WWT) services especially in small towns being significantly degraded. Water shortage and the use of dirty water for drinking have ...


    By Huckbody Environmental

  • Heat Sanitization Basics

    Even small numbers of bacteria are a problem for critical water systems like pharmaceutical USP water, dialysis water, and water for ...


    By SnowPure Water Technologies

  • Economic viability and critical influencing factors assessment of black water and grey water source-separation sanitation system

    The black water and grey water source-separation sanitation system aims at efficient use of energy (biogas), water and nutrients but currently lacks evidence of economic viability to be considered a credible alternative to the conventional system. This study intends to demonstrate economic viability, identify main cost contributors and assess critical influencing factors. A technico-economic ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Role of small-scale independent providers in water and sanitation

    Small-scale independent providers (SSIPs) and households are good for 10?69% of the household water supply and sometimes up to 95% of the sanitation solutions in cities in developing countries. Different types of SSIP can be distinguished. They could be allowed to make a more important contribution to drinking water and sanitation in a situation where many governments cannot be the only one to ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Working with complexity: a participatory systems-based process for planning and evaluating rural water, sanitation and hygiene services

    Individuals working within the water, sanitation and hygiene for development (WASH) sector grapple daily with complex technical, social, economic, and environmental issues that often produce unexpected outcomes that are difficult to plan for and resolve. Here we propose a method we are calling the ‘Participatory Systems-based Planning and Evaluation Process’ (PS-PEP) that combines structural ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Quantitative studies of water and sanitation utilities: a benchmarking literature survey

    This paper performs a literature update of quantitative studies of water and sanitation services (WSS), with an emphasis on tracking the benchmarking literature. There are 190 studies which use cost or production functions to evaluate the performance of WSS utilities. The studies examine: (1) the scale, scope or density economies of utilities in a particular country or region; (2) the influence ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water and sanitation interventions to control diarrheal disease in rural China

    To evaluate diarrheal disease control effects of various water and sanitation interventions, a comprehensive search strategy was developed to identify all peer-reviewed papers relating to water and sanitation intervention studies in China. All published studies since 1980 on water and sanitation interventions to reduce diarrheal disease in China were analyzed using meta-analysis. Fixed-effects ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sanitation and water supply in schools and girls' educational progression in Zambia

    There is much anecdotal evidence related to the importance of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in schools for girls' educational progression, yet a lack of comprehensive quantitative studies on linkages between WASH and educational indicators disaggregated by gender and grade. This paper aims to fill that gap by testing the hypothesis that the presence of water and sanitation facilities in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Combatting bacteria growth in emergency tank showers

    Emergency safety showers and eye wash stations are essential for sites where workers could come into contact with hazardous chemicals. In some environments providing this life saving equipment can be challenging, for instance a consistent supply of potable water cannot be guaranteed, or a tepid temperature can be difficult to maintain due to extreme ambient temperatures. ...

  • Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine

    For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. It also has some unpleasant byproducts. Together, however, these two substances can ...


    By ClearWater Tech LLC

  • Assessing sanitation service levels

    Conventional sanitation ladders rank sanitation in increasing complexity of technological options. However, sanitation improvement is not as straightforward as the concept of “a ladder” with incremental improvements, might suggest. For example, from the user perspective, a VIP toilet may in some circumstances be a better option than a septic tank system. There is a wide gap between ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • MBUJI-MAYI : Sanitation Status

    Sanitation provision in Mbuji-Mayi (DRC’s third-largest city) is grossly deficient, as in most cities in sub-Saharan Africa: most people do not have access to a hygienic toilet; large amounts of faecal waste are discharged to the environment without adequate treatment; this is likely to have major impacts on infectious disease burden and quality of life (Hutton et al. 2007). This is ...


    By IWA Publishing

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