water sanitation systems Articles

  • Building Sustainable Sanitation Systems

    A low cost system of resource management such as composting toilets is helping to mitigate many of Haiti’s social and ecological challenges. The Caribbean Republic of Haiti — the poorest, most environmentally degraded country in the Western Hemisphere with a population of about 10 million — is a case study in forestry and soil fertility mismanagement. A colonial ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries: Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies 2nd Edition

    This second, revised edition of the Compendium presents a huge range of information on sanitation systems and technologies in one volume. By ordering and structuring tried and tested technologies into once concise document, the reader is provided with a useful planning tool for making more informed decisions. Part 1 describes different system configurations for a variety of contexts. Part 2 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Emergence of decentralised water and sanitation systems in Melbourne, Australia

    In Melbourne, Australia, a shift is occurring in the approach to wastewater management. With increased pressure from landscape drivers such as population growth, urbanisation, and over a decade of extended drought conditions, a new model of wastewater management is being explored by Melbourne's metropolitan water utilities in the development of their latest Metropolitan Sewerage Strategy (MSS). ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Heat Sanitization Basics

    Even small numbers of bacteria are a problem for critical water systems like pharmaceutical USP water, dialysis water, and water for ...


    By SnowPure Water Technologies

  • Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine

    For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. It also has some unpleasant byproducts. Together, however, these two substances can ...


    By ClearWater Tech LLC

  • Assessing sanitation service levels

    Conventional sanitation ladders rank sanitation in increasing complexity of technological options. However, sanitation improvement is not as straightforward as the concept of “a ladder” with incremental improvements, might suggest. For example, from the user perspective, a VIP toilet may in some circumstances be a better option than a septic tank system. There is a wide gap between ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • MBUJI-MAYI : Sanitation Status

    Sanitation provision in Mbuji-Mayi (DRC’s third-largest city) is grossly deficient, as in most cities in sub-Saharan Africa: most people do not have access to a hygienic toilet; large amounts of faecal waste are discharged to the environment without adequate treatment; this is likely to have major impacts on infectious disease burden and quality of life (Hutton et al. 2007). This is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water Supply and Sanitation (WASH) in Harmony with Nature

    The grassy hillsides and vast forests around Rwambu wetland in south-western Uganda are not only a beautiful sight to see - it is fertile land which sustains agricultural based livelihoods, such as coffee, tea, bananas and beans. The Rwambu wetland is also a success story of integrated nature-based solutions. In the not so distant past, the people of Rwambu were up against a quickly ...


    By Wetlands International

  • Climate change and its effect on water, sanitation and hygiene

    Climate change is global phenomenon and caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere. The main sources of greenhouse gases are due to human activities. CO2 which is a major gas causing greenhouse gas effects, has been increased by 38 percent in current level with 880 billion tons in atmosphere now. It is estimated to reach to upper limit of 935 billion tons before final ...


  • Ancient water and sanitation systems – applicability for the contemporary urban developing world

    The idea of implementing ancient water and wastewater technologies in the developing world is a persuasive one, since ancient systems had many features which would constitute sustainable and decentralised water and sanitation (WATSAN) provision in contemporary terminology. Latest figures indicate 2.6 billion people do not use improved sanitation and 1.1 billion practise open defecation, thus ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Survival of pathogens in drinking water plumbing systems: impact factors and sanitation options

    The objective was to determine impact factors that would allow Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila to survive sanitation measures of household drinking water systems. Therefore, different disinfectant concentrations were tested under different operating conditions in close-to-practice experiments. Particular attention was paid to the viable but non-culturable ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Azerbaijan National Water Supply and Sanitation Project

    The water supply and sewer system in Azerbaijan is characterized by old, damaged and largely dysfunctional infrastructure and is financial constrained and poorly operated. This results in the level and the quality of the water supply and wastewater treatment (WWT) services especially in small towns being significantly degraded. Water shortage and the use of dirty water for drinking have ...


    By Huckbody Environmental

  • Role of small-scale independent providers in water and sanitation

    Small-scale independent providers (SSIPs) and households are good for 10?69% of the household water supply and sometimes up to 95% of the sanitation solutions in cities in developing countries. Different types of SSIP can be distinguished. They could be allowed to make a more important contribution to drinking water and sanitation in a situation where many governments cannot be the only one to ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Ancient water and sanitation systems - applicability for the contemporary urban developing world

    The main objective of this paper was to discuss and evaluate the applicability of selected ancient water and sanitation systems for the contemporary developing world. This topic is relevant given information the pressing need for sustainable and cost-effective water and sanitation facilities, particularly in urban areas of the developing world and (ii) the current focus on development of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Microbial Control and Sanitization of Membrane-Based Pure Water Treatment Systems

    Introduction Today's high technology water purification systems are designed to remove many types of impurities. One of the most difficult to deal with is microbiological contamination. Microbial growth in a water system presents two problems: it not only reduces water quality, but if left unattended, the problem can 'grow' to reduce system performance and life. Biofouling can cause a decrease ...


  • Urban Sanitation Initiative: Workshop 2 - Integrated Sanitation Planning and Implementation

    Thursday 20 September  14.15 – 15.45 Chair: Jaehyang So – Manager Water and Sanitation Program (USA) Better access to urban sanitation facilities combined with improved systems for managing residual waste streams are essential to achieve public health objectives and improvements in environment health in cities. The workshop will focus on the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biogas Wastewater Treatment Systems by the Philippine Center for Water and Sanitation: A Community-Managed Potable Water Supply, Sanitation, & Hygiene (CPWASH) Project

    The Philippines, like many developing countries, has serious sanitation issues for both their urban and rural citizens. Specifically for rural citizens, data from 2008 estimated that 17% of this population still had no access to improved sanitation, with 14% estimated to be practicing open defecation. With much of the Philippine countryside devoted to agriculture, this is a serious concern, as ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Slum sanitation project Mumbai, India

    1. Overview and key points Through investment by [J1] [A2] s and the support and creation of competent Community Based Organizations (CBOs) and Small Local Business Enterprises (SLBEs), community toilet blocks were constructed and set up in Mumbai for slum dwellers under the [J3] [A4] (SSP). Prior to its implementation; awareness and education campaigns were initiated throughout [J5] [A6] , ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Alternative sanitation options for households and communities

    The resource-intensive wastewater collection and treatment systems found in many parts of the developed world are not feasible for meeting the sanitation[1] needs of the less developed regions still lacking or having poor sanitation.  Establishment and maintenance costs are high and large amounts of energy are ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Economic viability and critical influencing factors assessment of black water and grey water source-separation sanitation system

    The black water and grey water source-separation sanitation system aims at efficient use of energy (biogas), water and nutrients but currently lacks evidence of economic viability to be considered a credible alternative to the conventional system. This study intends to demonstrate economic viability, identify main cost contributors and assess critical influencing factors. A technico-economic ...


    By IWA Publishing

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