water survey Articles

  • Investment returns in the water industry: a survey

    Although the water industry has become a topic of growing importance in the past decade, research on the returns on water investment is scarce. This paper provides a background to the development of the water industry, reviews existing studies on the performance of water investments, and identifies the research challenges in this area. The review finds that there are various ways for private ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • A survey of ancient Minoan water technologies

    A survey is presented of water technologies used by the ancient Minoan civilization during the Bronze Age. This survey considers eleven Minoan settlements on the eastern part of Crete and is based upon a field assessment of the water technologies. While water systems had a monumental role in the life of the Minoans there has been little understanding of these ancient systems. Partially this can ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Cost–benefit and water resources policy: a survey

    This paper reviews recent developments in cost–benefit analysis for water policy researchers who wish to understand the applications of economic principles to inform emerging water policy debates. The cost–benefit framework can provide a comparison of total economic gains and losses resulting from a proposed water policy. Cost–benefit analysis can provide decision-makers with a comparison of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Conducting surveys for water supply and sanitation in Indonesia

    Surveys can vary in cost and complexity depending upon the sample size, number of questions and degree of accuracy. But sometimes, even after huge expenditures, the results can be misleading or just plain wrong. Simple surveys to determine willingness to pay or consumer preferences can be accomplished by the local government for minimal expense and still provide ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Railroad survey application

    Introduction The GPR technology has been introduced to the railroad engineers as one of the easy tools for quick and non-invasive railroad inspection. Since these surveys tend to stretch for a number of kilometers the amount of data can be overwhelming. However, with some clever preparations and proper tools for post processing the data one can create swift and easy to understand ...


    By Geoscanners AB

  • Economies of scale in the water sector: a survey of the empirical literature

    The issue of the most favorable size and optimal industry structure in the water sector is a relevant topic in many countries, due to fragmentation of the water sector and the key role played by municipalities. Important debates are taking place worldwide about how to provide universal access to the water supply and offer an efficient service. Regarding efficiency, the possibility of exploiting ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Micro-component survey of residential water consumption in Hanoi

    Daily total water consumption per capita has been used as a basic unit for the future planning of water supply for domestic use. However, for innovative water utilization designs that consider various scenarios, including the effects of policy direction and global warming, and more strategic and efficient water use, it is absolutely essential to consider water usage divided by residential ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Perceived performance of decentralised water systems: a survey approach

    Decentralised water systems are considered to be effective, beneficial and are useful in a number of urban and peri-urban settings, and have been implemented to varying degrees across much of Australia. The use of decentralised water systems has introduced a change in the style of water service delivery and often there are new actors responsible and involved in the maintenance and operation of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Survey of human pharmaceuticals in drinking water in the Czech Republic

    The first large-scale assessment of pharmaceuticals in drinking water in the Czech Republic (CR) focused on the detection of five substances. Samples were collected from public water systems supplying 5.3 million people, 50.5% of the Czech population. In the initial survey of tap water from 92 major supply zones using mostly surface water, no pharmaceutical exceeded the limit of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Archaeological survey 2

    The site of the Meadows’ Wesleyan Cemetery in the Adelaide is thought to contain more than 130 unmarked graves. This site initially had a chapel constructed on it in 1840 and the first burial in 1855.  The initial chapel was replaced by a more substantial stone building in 1856.  Burials continued in this cemetery sporadically until the 1940’s although the site became less ...

  • Electromagnetic (EMI) surveys

    EMI (EM-34) surveyDesigned and performed an EM-34 soil conductivity (soil mapping) survey of a 26-acre wood-waste landfill in Omak, Washington.  This soil mapping survey was designed to detect buried drums at a depth of 60 feet and was augmented by a total-field magnetometer survey. While employed with the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ), performed approximately 40 ...


    By ECA Geophysics

  • Standardised survey method for identifying catchment risks to water quality

    This paper describes the development and application of a systematic methodology to identify and quantify risks in drinking water and recreational catchments. The methodology assesses microbial and chemical contaminants from both diffuse and point sources within a catchment using Escherichia coli, protozoan pathogens and chemicals (including fuel and pesticides) as index contaminants. Hazard ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Survey of statewide public perceptions regarding water reuse in Arizona

    Increasing demands on water resources have made water reuse an attractive option for extending water supplies in the southwest. However, concerns remain about the potential risks of contact with recycled water. This study focused on perceptions regarding water reuse and how these may affect future utilization of the resource. This study, based on a telephone survey of 400 randomly-selected ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Rural water services in Guatemala: a survey of institutions and community preferences

    This paper investigates how drinking water is delivered in rural areas in Guatemala. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of the government, municipalities, non-governmental organizations and communities. Community preferences for improved water services are also investigated. Findings suggest that governmental and non-governmental organizations require communities to take on the operation ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Quantitative studies of water and sanitation utilities: a benchmarking literature survey

    This paper performs a literature update of quantitative studies of water and sanitation services (WSS), with an emphasis on tracking the benchmarking literature. There are 190 studies which use cost or production functions to evaluate the performance of WSS utilities. The studies examine: (1) the scale, scope or density economies of utilities in a particular country or region; (2) the influence ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • 2006 Water and Wastewater Rate Survey Preliminary Results and Industry Trends

    ABSTRACTRaftelis Financial Consultants, Inc. (RFC), in conjunction with the American Water Works Association (AWWA), conducts a biennial water and wastewater rate survey (Survey). There are a number of preliminary findings from the Survey, including: Water and wastewater rates increased at about the same pace as inflation between 2004 and 2006, which is different from previous surveys which have ...

  • Geology survey/Stratigraphy application

    Introduction These kind of surveys are done to determine ground conditions - more precisely layers, disturbance, homogeneity, water table levels etc. The two things that need to be achieved in this kind of surveys are depth of interest and satisfying vertical resolution. Survey example A good example of a real life and ever more frequent survey ...


    By Geoscanners AB

  • Customer satisfaction survey: the case of urban water supply services in Southern Ethiopia

    Service quality and customer satisfaction are very important concepts that water enterprises must understand and measure from the customers' perspective to satisfy their needs. The main objectives of this research were to assess the level of customer satisfaction on urban water supply services of Southern Region, Ethiopia, and identify major determinants. Quantitative data were collected from ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Public perceptions of recycled water: a survey of visitors to the London 2012 Olympic Park

    The Old Ford Water Recycling Plant, operated by Thames Water, was used to supply non-potable recycled blackwater to some of the venues at the London 2012 Games. In an effort to learn from this experience, Thames Water commissioned a survey of visitors to the Olympic Park during the Games to explore public responses to the water recycling project. Results show a very high level of support for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Drainage-Area Survey Data Management

    Northumbrian Water Supply of HydroLog4 time-series database and reporting system for drainage area studies Northumbrian Water ordered HydroLog4 as a replacement data management and reporting system for time-series data collected during the short and long-term survey work by internal crews throughout the water company's wastewater management business. ...

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