water treatment coagulant Articles

  • Coagulation and flocculation in water and wastewater treatment

    Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment.  This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking.  Material for this article was largely taken from reference (1). Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. In potable water treatment, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Surface Water Monitoring - Case Study

    Safe operation of a Water Treatment Plant (WTP) requires careful monitoring of the water supply influent to the plant, as a guard for any substances entering the treatment works that could negatively impact treated water quality in the distribution system. One aspect of water quality that has recently garnered more attention from authorities and utilities is Natural Organic Matter (NOM), which ...


    By MANTECH Inc.

  • 3 Water Utilities that Lowered their Arsenic Levels with AdEdge

    Finding an appropriate solution to address arsenic in raw water can be challenging for utilities. Studies have shown that when ingested in high concentrations, it is linked to cancer in the skin, lungs, bladder and kidney, and can cause significant skin changes, such as thickening and pigmentation, as well as other health issues. For this reason, the ...

  • Evaluation of chitosan as a natural coagulant for drinking water treatment

    Chitosan, a natural biopolymer, was evaluated for its ability to be used as a coagulant to treat water for potable use both in isolation and in combination with other water treatment technologies, specifically ion-exchange and activated carbon. Chitosan was found to be very effective for particle removal at doses far below those required for equivalent turbidity removal by inorganic coagulants. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Home water treatment by direct filtration with natural coagulant

    ABSTRACTSeeds of the plant species Strychnos potatorum and Moringa oleifera contain natural polyelectrolytes which can be used as coagulants to clarify turbid waters. In laboratory tests, direct filtration of a turbid surface water (turbidity 15-25 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 280-500 cfu ml−1, and fecal coliforms 280-500 MPN 100 ml−1), with seeds of S. potatorum ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Coagulation and flocculation in the Helsinki drinking water treatment plant

    The raw water for Finland’s capital Helsinki is pumped from Lake Päijänne, located approximately 120 km away, via a tunnel to two water treatment plants, where it is treated and purified. This secures sufficient drinking water of excellent quality for around one million people. In the drinking water treatment plant in Vanhakaupunki 18 HYPERCLASSIC® Evolution7 mixers and three ...

  • Evaluation of industrial dyeing wastewater treatment with coagulants and polyelectrolyte as a coagulant aid.

    Wastewater is the major environmental issue of the textile industries besides other minor issues like solid waste, resource wastage and occupational, health and safety. Textile and dyeing mills use many kinds of artificial composite dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater. Pretreatment, coloration and after treatment of fibers, usually require large amounts of water and ...


    By University of Tehran

  • Evaluation of leached metals in recovered aluminum coagulants from water treatment slurry

    The water treatment industry consumes large quantities of coagulant and produces huge amounts of slurry. The cost of alum used in water treatment, stringent regulations and negative impacts of sludge disposal are the motive to do integrated research studies on the technical feasibility of aluminum coagulant recovery from sludge using acidification. This work studied the leaching of iron, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Zirconium and chitosan coagulants for drinking water treatment – a pilot study

    Scientists continuously search for alternative coagulants that would be able to outperform traditionally used aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe). Use of a novel metal coagulant zirconium (Zr) has been associated with enhanced organic matter reduction. On the other hand, eco-friendly non-metal solutions, such as chitosan, can provide non-toxic sludge and water with no metal residue. In fact, Zr and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Laboratory evaluation of a water-treatment sequence using Moringa oleifera seed coagulant

    A water extract of Moringa. oleifera seed was applied to a treatment sequence comprising coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation-sand filtration. Model waters (kaolinite suspensions) of turbidities 10, 100, 300 and 700 NTU were prepared. For the 10 NTU water, the optimum dose was only evident when sand filtration was incorporated into the treatment sequence. For the higher water turbidities ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Application of ELM to predict the coagulant dosing in water treatment plants

    Predicting the coagulant dosage is especially crucial to the purification process in water treatment plants, directly affecting the quality of the purified water. Nowadays, several mathematical methods have been adopted for the purification process, but their predictive precision and speed still need to be improved. This study applies a novel neural network called the extreme learning machine ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Influence of coagulant/lime dosing sequence on treatment of soft humic waters

    The influence of dosing sequence of lime and alum as a coagulant in the treatment of soft humic waters (requiring pre-alkalinisation of raw water) was studied. The experiments show that the traditional dosing order, i.e. pre-alkalinisation first and coagulant second, might give worse results in comparison with the reversed order, i.e. coagulant dosing followed by pre-alkalinisation. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Longterm experience in the use of polymeric coagulants at Umgeni Water

    Umgeni Water, the bulk treatment authority for the cities of Durban and Pietermaritzburg changed from inorganic coagulants to synthetic polymeric coagulants at its various works in the mid 1980s. The advantages and disadvantages experienced with the new chemicals are discussed in detail in the paper and the changes to test procedures necessary are highlighted. The polymeric coagulants were found ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effectiveness of priority PAH removal in a water coagulation process

    The paper presents results of research on the removal of priority hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) from water in the coagulation and sedimentation process. Coagulants chosen for the analysis were aluminum(VI)sulfate and two pre-hydrolyzed coagulants – ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effectiveness of coagulants and coagulant aids for the removal of filter-clogging Synedra

    The occurrence of Synedra spp. in the source water of the CheongJu water treatment plant (South Korea) decreased filter run times of rapid sand filters to below 5 hours. During the filter-clogging episode, full-scale Synedra removal by coagulation with polyaluminium hydrogen chloride silicate (PAHCS), flocculation and sedimentation ranged from 20 to 70%. To reduce filter clogging, strategies ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effectiveness of coagulants and coagulant aids for the removal of filter-clogging Synedra

    ABSTRACTThe occurrence of Synedra spp. in the source water of the CheongJu water treatment plant (South Korea) decreased filter run times of rapid sand filters to below 5 hours. During the filter-clogging episode, full-scale Synedra removal by coagulation  with polyaluminium hydrogen chloride silicate (PAHCS), flocculation and sedimentation ranged from 20 to 70%. To reduce filter clogging, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Total photosynthetic pigments in addition to turbidity during the selection of coagulant treatments: a drinking water treatment perspective

    Total photosynthetic pigments (TPP) or chlorophyll-a analysis can be useful in selecting coagulant treatments that will improve phytoplankton removal and reduce treatment costs. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of phytoplankton and turbidity removal when using TPP and turbidity as indicator parameters of appropriate coagulant treatments as well as to evaluate the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Enhanced coagulation: a viable option to advance treatment technologies in the South African context

    Laboratory and full-scale experiments were conducted for enhancing the coagulation of stabilised surface waters with high organic content by permanganate preoxidation. It was indicated that permanganate preoxidation enhanced both the processes of coagulation and filtration of selected surface waters, River Songhua water, Qitaihe Reservoir water and Ba Reservoir water. Permanganate preoxidation is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Advanced phosphorus removal via coagulation, flocculation and microsieve filtration in tertiary treatment

    The applicability of microsieve technology together with coagulation and flocculation for advanced phosphorus removal was investigated. A pilot unit including a microsieve with 10 μm mesh size was operated continuously with secondary effluent from Ruhleben wastewater treatment plant in Berlin. By applying a pretreatment of 0.07–0.09 mmol/L (as metal) coagulant and 1.5–2 mg/L cationic polymer, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Enhanced coagulation: a viable option to advance treatment technologies in the South African context

    Laboratory and pilot scale tests were conducted to compare the effectiveness of enhanced coagulation with the more advanced technologies of ozone and granular activated carbon in treating a range of clean, eutrophic and industrially polluted waters. Particular attention was paid to the removal of disinfectant by-product precursors, organics and micropollutants that could be achieved using the ...


    By IWA Publishing

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