waterborne disease Articles

  • Waterborne Pathogens

    Background Waterborne disease is a global burden of great magnitude. As stated by Water.org, the number of people worldwide without access to safe water is estimated to be nearly 1 billion with another 2.5 billion lacking improved sanitation (http://water.org/learn-about-the-water-crisis/billion/). Apart from causing a great number of deaths, the innumerable cases of sicknesses have a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • On tap: recreational waterborne disease at an all-time high

    Levels of recreational waterborne disease are at their highest since reporting began in 1978, suggesting the need for interventions aimed at reducing risks in natural and treated water systems. More outbreaks are reported related to recreational  waterborne diesease than drinking water sources. Every two years the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publishes a report on waterborne ...

  • Waterborne diseases in the state of Mexico, Mexico (2000-2005)

    This paper reports a spatial-temporal examination of waterborne disease data from the State of Mexico, 2000 to 2005, by county as the spatial unit. It was found that the incidence of waterborne disease did not decrease during the period under study. Inequality between metropolitan areas and rural zones was observed. People living in population centres had lower incidence of water-related ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Waterborne diseases classification and relationship with social-environmental factors in Florianópolis city – Southern Brazil

    This study aimed to investigate and classify the occurrence of waterborne diseases in Florianópolis city, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil and to correlate these diseases with the following social-environmental indicators of the local population: type of water supply, adequate collection and sewage treatment, areas of flooding and domestic water tank cleaning. Reports of outpatients were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water-based diseases

    Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated fresh water is consumed. Contaminated fresh water, used in the preparation of food, can be the source of foodborne disease through consumption of the same microorganisms. According to the World Health Organization, diarrheal disease accounts for an estimated 4.1% of the total DALY ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Electrochemical inactivation kinetics of boron-doped diamond electrode on waterborne pathogens

    A boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was constructed as a water disinfector for the inactivation of water borne pathogens. The bactericidal effect of the disinfector was evaluated on artificially contaminated waters containing, respectively, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila at high density. By treating the bacterial suspensions ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water- and wastewater-related disease and infection risks: what is an appropriate value for the maximum tolerable additional burden of disease?

    The maximum additional burden of water- and wastewater-related disease of 10_6 disability-adjusted life year (DALY) loss per person per year (pppy), used in the WHO Drinking-water Quality Guidelines and the WHO Guidelines for Wastewater Use in Agriculture, is based on US EPA's acceptance of a 70-year lifetime waterborne cancer risk of 10_5 per person, equivalent to an annual risk of 1.4×10_7 per ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A waterborne outbreak of campylobacteriosis in the South Island of New Zealand due to a failure to implement a multi-barrier approach

    Outbreaks of waterborne gastroenteritis continue to occur in developed countries. Darfield, a rural town in the South Island of New Zealand experienced an outbreak of campylobacteriosis following a transgression of Escherichia coli on 16 August 2012. A descriptive outbreak investigation was performed. As a result, 29 cases had a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of campylobacteriosis and 138 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The impact of meteorology on the occurrence of waterborne outbreaks of vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC): a logistic regression approach

    This study analyses the relationship between meteorological phenomena and outbreaks of waterborne-transmitted vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) in the Republic of Ireland over an 8-year period (2005–2012). Data pertaining to the notification of waterborne VTEC outbreaks were extracted from the Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting system, which is administered through the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • National surveillance capacity of water-related diseases in the WHO European Region

    Water-related diseases continue to cause a high burden of mortality and morbidity in the countries of the European Region. Parties to the Protocol on Water and Health are committed to the sustainable use of water resources, the provision of safe drinking water and adequate sanitation to all people of the European Region, and to the reduction of the burden of water-related diseases. A specialized ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A Look at the Impact of Proposed Water Standard to Prevent Legionnaires` Disease

    From the standpoint of water treatment industry experts, failure to prevent legionellosis (or Legionnaires’ Disease) is the most significant water treatment problem today. Essentially every case of the disease is the result of exposure to inadequately managed building watersystems, and both utility and potable water systems can be the source of the hazard (i.e., Legionella bacteria). In ...


    By Phigenics, LLC

  • Disease-causing bacteria made more resilient by standard water disinfection practices

    Halogenated nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) in water increase bacterial resistance to antibiotics, new research shows. The study found that a strain of bacteria which can cause disease in humans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, increased its resistance to a range of different antibiotics by an average of 5.5 times after the bacteria were exposed to chemicals which form as by-products of ...

  • Socio-economic factors influencing the spread of drinking water diseases in rural Africa: case study of Bondo sub-county, Kenya

    Socio-economic and medical information on Bondo sub-county community was studied to help establish the relationship between the water quality challenges, community health and water rights conditions. Health challenges have been linked to water quality and household income. A total of 1,510 households/respondents were studied by means of a questionnaire. About 69% of the households have no ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Impact of providing in-home water service on the rates of infectious diseases: results from four communities in Western Alaska

    Approximately 20% of rural Alaskan homes lack in-home piped water; residents haul water to their homes. The limited quantity of water impacts the ability to meet basic hygiene needs. We assessed rates of infections impacted by water quality (waterborne, e.g. gastrointestinal infections) and quantity (water-washed, e.g. skin and respiratory infections) in communities transitioning to in-home ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Bathing in polluted rivers, Water-Borne Diseases, and fuzzy measures: a case study in India

    Religious bathing in river water is practised in India and Nepal since time memorable. The World Health Organization in their report (2002) states that diarrhoeal diseases alone killed over 700,000 Indians in the year 1999. In spite of best efforts, there has been no straightforward solution technique available to prove/disprove the cause – effect relationship between bathing in river ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Drinking Water Quality

    The quality of drinking-water is a powerful environmental determinant of health. Drinking-water quality management has been a key pillar of primary prevention for over one-and-a-half centuries and it continues to be the foundation for the prevention and control of waterborne diseases. Water is essential for life, but it can and does transmit disease in countries in all continents – from the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Environmental health aspects of drinking water-borne outbreak due to karst flooding: case study

    Climate change may increase the incidence of waterborne diseases due to extreme rainfall events, and consequent microbiological contamination of the water source and supply. As a result of the complexity of the pathways from the surface to the consumer, it is difficult to detect an association between rainfall and human disease. The water supply of a Hungarian city, Miskolc (174,000 inhabitant), ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evolution of regulatory targets for drinking water quality

    The last century has been marked by major advances in the understanding of microbial disease risks from water supplies and significant changes in expectations of drinking water safety. The focus of drinking water quality regulation has moved progressively from simple prevention of detectable waterborne outbreaks towards adoption of health-based targets that aim to reduce infection and disease to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • High performance turbidity filter

    Turbidity in water is caused by suspended and colloidal matter such as clay, silt, finely divided natural organic matter (NOM), inorganic matter and plankton plus other microscopic organisms, according to Standard Methods 2130. Waterborne pathogens have caused significant disease outbreaks in the United States and continue to pose a significant risk. The most frequently reported waterborne ...


    By Argonide Corporation

  • Incorporation of the Multiple Barrier Approach in drinking water risk assessment tools

    A number of existing risk assessment tools make reference to, or incorporate, a Multiple Barrier Approach to drinking water safety. Three waterborne disease outbreaks that occurred in developed nations were used as case studies to test a selected set of risk assessment tools. The outbreaks were used to determine how well the risk assessment tools identify hazards and vulnerabilities associated ...


    By IWA Publishing

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