wetlands design Articles

  • Numerical modelling: a tool for better constructed wetland design?

    There is a need for a simplified computer-based design tool for subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) which is based on process-based numerical models. Parameters of existing design guidelines and rules have been derived from experiments under specific conditions. Therefore designing CWs using these parameters is limited to these conditions (i.e. temperature, wastewater composition, filter ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Waste Stabilization Ponds and Constructed Wetlands - Design Manual, 2005

    The design manual for waste stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands presented in this CD ROM gives a comprehensive technical information about their planning, design and operation. Also a number of numerical models are included to assist in finding the size of a constructed wetland or stabilization pond, reduce the concentration of heavy metals, phosphorous and nitrogen amongst other ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Integrated Constructed Wetlands: concept, design, site evaluation and performance

    'Integrated Constructed Wetlands' (ICW) are a joined-up approach to land and water management. Significant synergies were achieved by explicitly combining environmental, ecological and aesthetic objectives. Intercepted precipitation was found to be the main factor determining treatment efficacy. Soil infiltration and evapo-transpiration combined to enhance hydraulic residence time. A wetland area ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Design, Construction, and Startup of Sustainable and Integrated Wetlands Treatment Process in Stockton, California

    ABSTRACTConstructed treatment wetlands have become an established technology for treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters around the world. Wetland systems can provide treatment similar to conventional tertiary wastewater facilities if sufficient land is available but with lower energy and maintenance requirements. Ancillary benefits of treatment wetlands include wildlife habitat, ...

  • Comparison of nitrogen elimination rates of different constructed wetland designs

    In this paper the nitrogen elimination rates of different constructed wetland (CW) designs reported in literature are compared with those obtained for outdoor and indoor 2-stage vertical flow (VF) systems. The outdoor system is located about 150 km west of Vienna. Both stages are planted with Phragmites australis and the system has been operated for 4 years continuously. During this period the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Performance characterisation of a constructed Wetland

    Performance of a constructed wetland is commonly reported as being variable due to the site specific nature of influential factors. This paper discusses the outcomes from an in-depth study which characterised the treatment performance of a wetland based on the variation in the runoff regime. The study included a comprehensive field monitoring of a well-established constructed wetland in Gold ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Designing a constructed wetland for the detention of agricultural runoff for water quality improvement

    Received for publication December 18, 2008. The goal of this study was to construct a wetland that would detain runoff from a 162-ha watershed for the purposes of improving water quality. The volume of runoff that needed to be detained was determined to be that amount coming off the 162-ha watershed consisting of 146 ha of cultivated crop land and 16 ha of pasture that exceeded the amount that ...

  • Design, construction and performance of a horizontal subsurface flow wetland system in Australia

    Malabugilmah is a remote Aboriginal community located in Clarence Valley, Northern NSW, Australia. In 2006, seven horizontal subsurface flow wetland clusters consisting of 3 m × 2 m wetland cells in series were designed and constructed to treat septic tank effluent to a secondary level (Total Suspended Solids (TSS) < 30 mg/L and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) <20 mg/L) and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • French vertical-flow constructed wetland design: adaptations for tropical climates

    The French Outermost Regions are under tropical climate yet still have to comply with both French and EU regulations. French vertical-flow constructed wetland systems appear well adapted to the technical specifics of these regions but their adaptation to tropical climate requires new design guidelines to be defined (area needed, number of filters, type of plants, material to be used, etc.). A ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • What is wetland mitigation banking?

    A mitigation bank is a wetland, stream, or other aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or (in certain circumstances) preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404 or a similar state or local wetland regulation.  The concept has been around since the 1970’s.  In 1995 U.S. federal agencies ...


    By Common Sense Solutions, LLC

  • Wetlands of International Importance in Russia

    The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat was adopted on the 2nd February 1971 in the Iranian city of Ramsar. Thus, it has come to be popularly known as the “Ramsar Convention”, and the 2nd of February each year is celebrated as World Wetlands Day. Wetlands are areas where water is the primary factor controlling the environment and the ...


    By Wetlands International

  • Start-up readiness of the Apache wetland.

    The Apache Wetland was constructed in 1997 pursuant to a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency order to treat nitrate-contaminated groundwater within the Apache Powder Superfund Site. To date, the treatment facility is entering its fourth growing season in an effort to accumulate sufficient carbonaceous detritus of principally decayed Typha latifolia biomass. This substrate is required to maintain ...


    By Hargis + Associates Inc

  • Sizing mitigation wetlands in agricultural watersheds

    In this study, we investigated use of microcosms to supplement field studies for establishing the size of wetlands required to mitigate nitrate pollution in agricultural watersheds. Wetlands investigated in this study were located in San Joaquin Valley (California, USA) and demonstrated mean nitrate-nitrogen mass removal efficiencies ranging between 10 and 34%. Mean areal nitrate removal ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Wetlands International Achievements 2011 – 2013

    Our Collective Targets Wise use and restoration of 20 wetlands is linked with the development of sustainable livelihoods, resulting in a strengthened asset base for at least 200,000 people Species oriented and ecological network initiatives result in improved status of selected wetland biodiversity groups, including waterbirds and freshwater fish The status of ...


    By Wetlands International

  • Migratory birds - Connecting Wetlands and People

    Management of migratory species succeeds where critically important sites are well managed along flyways. Migratory waterbirds depend on a range of secure sites from their breeding grounds to staging and nonbreeding sites that they use during their annual migrations. These birds depend on a range of natural and man-made wetland habitats - many are managed as nationally protected areas, ...


    By Wetlands International

  • Design and performance of hybrid constructed wetland systems for high-content wastewater treatment in the cold climate of Hokkaido, northern Japan

    The performance of six multistage hybrid constructed wetland systems was evaluated. The systems were designed to treat four kinds of high-content wastewater: dairy wastewater (three systems, average inflow content 2,400–5,000 mg·COD l−1, 3–6 years of operation); pig farm wastewater, including liquid food washing wastewater (one system, 9,500 mg·COD ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Experiences from the full-scale implementation of a new two-stage vertical flow constructed wetland design

    This paper describes the results of the first full-scale implementation of a two-stage vertical flow constructed wetland (CW) system developed to increase nitrogen removal. The full-scale system was constructed for the Bärenkogelhaus, which is located in Styria at the top of a mountain, 1,168 m above sea level. The Bärenkogelhaus has a restaurant with 70 seats, 16 rooms for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Design-support and performance estimation using HYDRUS/CW2D: a horizontal flow constructed wetland for polishing SBR effluent

    The 4,000 PE (700 m3/d) wastewater treatment plant at Balf, Hungary was based on sequencing batch reactor technology with phosphorus precipitation as the tertiary step. Its effluent met quality thresholds on average, with above-threshold peaks mainly in winter. The HYDRUS/CW2D model package (PC Progress s.r.o.) was used to simulate the treatment performance of a horizontal flow constructed ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Influence of design, physico-chemical and environmental parameters on pharmaceuticals and fragrances removal by constructed wetlands

    The ability of several mesocosm-scale and full-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) to remove pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from urban wastewater was assessed. The results of three previous works were considered as a whole to find common patterns in PPCP removal. The experiment took place outdoors under winter and summer conditions. The mesocosm-scale CWs differed in some design ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • System design and treatment efficiency of a surface flow constructed wetland receiving runoff impacted stream water

    This study reported the efficiency of a free water surface flow constructed wetland (CW) system that receives runoff impacted stream water from a forested and agricultural watershed. Investigations were conducted to examine the potential effect of hydraulic fluctuations on the CW as a result of storm events and the changes in water quality along the flow path of the CW. Based on the results, the ...


    By IWA Publishing

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