Thermal efficiency analysis can be used to minimise the energy losses in laser welding. In the present study, laser welding and efficiency analysis are considered. The first and second law efficiencies for the welding process are formulated and quantified for new parameters associated with the welding geometry. These parameters include excess mass ratio, loss mass ratio, and heat loss ratio. It is found that the first and second law efficiencies improve gradually with increasing excess mass ratio. However, the first and second law efficiencies reduce with increasing loss mass ratio and heat loss ratio, provided the decrease in efficiencies with increasing heat loss ratio is gradual.
How California’s greenhouse gas laws can better serve disadvantaged communities
Environmental justice advocates are working to ensure the state’s efforts to combat climate change benefit everyone — and the lessons can be applied nationwide. It was a time of year that should have been perfect. Warming temperatures marked Southern California’s gentle return to spring. The grass had shifted from drab to glowing green. The sky, which can be pale and hard in winter, had softened to a gentler blue. At the John Mendez Baseball Park in Los Angeles’ Wilmington neighborhood,...
Law on Green Growth & Energy Transition Introduces the Circular Economy and Planned Obsolence
On 18 July 2015, Law 2015-992 on green growth and energy transition was published in France. The energy transition Law is a groundbreaking piece of legislation that introduces the concepts of circular economy and planned obsolescence for the first time at the European level. The Law on green growth and energy transition gives a fresh impulse to the French legal framework by codifying the recent concepts of circular economy and planned obsolescence. The Law also introduces a large number of provisions in the...
Clean jobs coalition calls for updated renewable energy laws in Illinois
On February 4, 2015, the newly formed Illinois Clean Jobs Coalition and Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel called for an update of the renewable portfolio standard (RPS) that was put into place in 2007. The Coalition proposed a plan to create as many as 32,000 jobs annually by improving Illinois` energy economy. These improvements would be made through: (1) changes to the RPS to increase the use of renewable sources to create 35 percent of power by 2030; (2) improved energy efficiency standards so that overall electricity...
Sovereignty of states, peaceful nuclear energy and principles of international environmental law
The sovereign right of states to peaceful nuclear energy is analysed on the basis of principles of international environmental law. The exercise of this right depends on the implementation of certain obligations under international law. The notion of sovereignty as independence and superiority does not serve the challenges of peaceful nuclear energy and the modern understanding of the environment as an area of common concern. Against this background a cooperative approach is suggested in order to successfully...
Nuclear terrorism and environmental protection under international law
To counter nuclear and radiological terrorism and prevent the adverse economic, social and environmental consequences of such illicit acts perpetrated by non–state actors, the international community has established a comprehensive legal framework comprising soft law and legally binding instruments. This paper collates the international legal instruments relating to nuclear security and discusses the nature of the threat, and the degree of risk posed to nuclear material and nuclear facilitates by non–state...