Kuaanan Techato1*, Daniel J. Watts2, Sumate Chaiprapat3, and Rainer Stegmann4

Life Cycle Analysis of Hazardous Waste from the Energy Conservation Measures in Existing Buildings

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Courtesy of Kuaanan Techato1*, Daniel J. Watts2, Sumate Chaiprapat3, and Rainer Stegmann4

Abstract
The budget used for the retrofitting of low energy efficiency equipment in building is normally paid by financially considering the internal rate of return and a simple payback period. The environmental view has not been considered typically. One of the overlooked aspects within the energy conservation measures is the managerial cost of hazardous waste from the removed low energy efficiency equipment. LCA (Life Cycle Cost Analysis) is an approach to consider all inventories and impacts, including the costs in the case of LCC (Life Cycle Cost), covering the environmental aspect, particularly hazardous waste, throughout the life cycle from raw material preparation, removal of existing equipment, installation, to the waste disposal. This study will take into account only Hg in fluorescent tubes and CFC in air conditioners as representative of the range of wastes, because it can be emitted during the retrofitting. The LCA result is used for the creation of a conceptual decision making model showing clear components and structures of investment in retrofitting. The preliminary target audiences for this study are almost 1,700 designated buildings (defined in the Royal Decree, containing an installed transformer of more than 1,000 kW or 1,175 kVA annually or consuming energy more than 20 million MJ since 1995-2004) in Thailand.

Introduction
Environment and energy issues around the world are getting more and more attention. It is necessary for the government in each country to increase its role in stimulating awareness about these issues. If we consider sustainable development according to the definition by Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Bruntland, which is to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, the integration of energy and environment has to be done by the merging of energy conservation, renewable energy, and pollution prevention. One important area of the integration is the issue of hazardous waste from the energy conservation measures employed in existing buildings. There are certain sources of hazardous waste in the energy conservation measures that are typically applied in existing buildings. It is very important to consider the implicit cost of hazardous waste management in the balance between energy savings and implementation cost. The LCA approach on the energy conservation measures can be used to identify the phases or materials that show the major environmental impacts. To reduce the hazardous waste at the source, a preliminary conceptual model, created from the factors related to the major impacts, can be used before the implementation of the energy conservation measures.

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