Keywords: Asia Pacific, carbon dioxide emissions, climate change, developing countries, road infrastructure, economic growth, road transport, time-space telescoping, transportation, USA, vehicle emissions, United States, surfaced roads, road availability, bottleneck, air pollution, paved roads
Limited provision of roads as a bottleneck on vehicle CO2 emissions in Asia: an international comparison of national trends
This paper explores the relationship between road infrastructure, economic growth and road CO2 emissions. The basic premise is that many developing nations have achieved sufficient wealth to generate substantial demand for road vehicles, but that actual use is constrained by limited provision of surfaced roads. Our main result is that for comparable levels of income (GDP/capita), CO2 emissions per length of paved road are far higher in rapidly developing Asia as compared to the USA. These findings suggest existence of an 'infrastructure bottleneck', that when relieved, may influence the future trajectory of road transport CO2 emissions in developing Asia.