Keywords: endogenous development, environmental conservation, gender, livelihood–based education, environmental education, firewood, biogas technology, Nepal, technology usage, developing countries, natural environment, livelihoods, Chitwan, sanitation, indoor smoke, health problems, men, women, comprehensive instructions, interdisciplinary approaches
Livelihood–based environmental education in the endogenous development of Nepal: survey based on biogas technology usage
Discussions of endogenous development in developing countries and environmental education focus on livelihood aspects as a decisive factor. However, current environmental education mainly focuses on the natural environment and lacks particular focus on livelihood aspects. This paper incorporates livelihood–based environmental education and investigates endogenous development in the Chitwan district of Nepal by using surveys on the adoption of biogas technology. The research found that biogas has contributed to improvements in sanitation and significant reduction in indoor smoke and health problems. However, most often men participated in educational programmes on biogas technology for environmental conservation and the decision to adopt biogas also is made by men without giving knowledge about it to women, who are the main users. Thus, women cannot use biogas properly because of the lack of comprehensive instruction and are unable to contribute environmental conservation that depends upon the decrease in the use of firewood in daily life.