John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Long‐term effects of binary mixtures of 17α‐ethynylestradiol (EE2) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in a partial life‐cycle test with zebrafish (Danio rerio)

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Courtesy of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Taking 17α‐ethynylestradiol (EE2) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as typical estrogen and phthalate ester, respectively, their combined in vivo effects on zebrafish (Danio rerio) were investigated from juvenile to adult stage. The EE2 (5 and 20 ng/L) and DBP (0.1 and 0.5 mg/L) were spiked either individually or in mixture. At 45 days post‐fertilization (dpf), survival rate of zebrafish was comparable in all treatments. DBP did not induce vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis, and no interaction was found between EE2 and DBP on VTG induction. At 90 dpf, both liver and gill were subject to more severe damage (lipid vacuoles of hepatocyte, amalgamation of gill lamellae and clubbing at the tips of the secondary lamellae) when co‐exposed to these two chemicals compared to single exposure. At 115 dpf, generally none of the binary mixture groups showed significantly different growth and sex ratio compared with the corresponding EE2 alone groups. In conclusion, no obvious interactions were detected between EE2 and DBP on the growth, VTG induction and sex ratio of zebrafish, as they may act independently. However, the influence on morphology of gonad, liver and gill induced by exposure to the mixture of EE2 and DBP was generally more potent than that by single exposure to EE2 or DBP, indicating the combined long‐term harmful effects of EE2 and DBP on the development of zebrafish. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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