Keywords: lateral semiconductor quantum dots, electron transport, Coulomb blockade, Kondo effect, qubits, quantum dissipation, decoherence, quantum noise, nanotechnology, Spain, many-body effects, quantum coherence, nanostructures
Many-body effects and quantum coherence in electron transport through quantum dots
In this paper, I briefly review some recent aspects of electron transport through lateral quantum dots in the few-electron regime. These systems are very useful in studying a wide range of fascinating phenomena. Many of these phenomena originate from the intricate interplay between electron interactions and quantum coherence. In particular, I describe recent developments concerning Kondo physics in quantum dots and the realisation of charge qubits in double quantum dots. These two examples illustrate how recent experimental advances in transport studies of quantum dots provide us with an excellent testing ground to study fundamental problems of condensed-matter physics (for instance, the physics of correlated electrons and quantum dissipation) with unprecedented control. Some of the effects appearing in nanostructures have no counterpart in conventional systems. The nanotechnology for fabricating and measuring sophisticated devices now exists and may soon help us to gain new insights into a number of fundamental physical concepts related to correlations and quantum coherence in low dimensions.