Keywords: ammonia measurements, automotive emission, emission factor, heavy-duty vehicle, light-duty vehicle, tunnel study, vehicle emissions, pollution emissions, highway tunnels
Measurement of ammonia emissions using various techniques in a comparative tunnel study
A field-based intercomparison study for ammonia measurements was conducted using seven analytical methods. It included sulphuric acid impinger, citric acid denuder, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), and continuous aqueous extraction followed by measurement of conductivity (Airrmonia). Measurements were done at the entrance and the exit of the Gubrist highway tunnel near Zurich, Switzerland. For DOAS, FTIR, PAS and Airrmonia, 24 hour means were calculated based on a time resolution of 10 minutes. At the tunnel exit, all 24 hour averages were within 13%, and the continuous data of the time-resolved methods agreed well. At the tunnel entrance, a slightly reduced method comparison included four methods, and daily mean values agreed within 23%. Ammonia emission factors, based on 4 weeks of continuous measurements with the Airrmonia, were 31 ± 4 mg km-1 for light-duty vehicles and 14 ± 7 mg km-1 for heavy-duty vehicles.