John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Measurements of nanomaterials in environmentally‐relevant water matrices using liquid nebulization / differential mobility (LN/DMA) analysis

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A liquid nebulization‐differential mobility analysis (LN/DMA) methodology was evaluated for the measurement of the size distribution and quantitative mass concentration of nanomaterials in environmentally relevant aqueous media. The analysis time is 8 min, the method requires little routine sample preparation and less than 8 mL of sample. The method can be used for rapid, direct analysis of nanomaterials in aqueous media with a particular application to dose verification in ecotoxicology studies, analysis of manufacturing process waste streams and raw material analysis. Twelve reference materials having a diameter (dp) traceable to NIST were spiked into 6 different aqueous matrices that included drinking water, groundwater, industrial wastewater as well as the algae and daphnia growth media used in ecotoxicology testing. Measurement of the dp of a reference material was within the expected range for the reference material. Individual response factors for each reference material were determined in each media and the accuracy and precision of the concentration measurements evaluated. In ecotoxicology test media, measurements of the concentration of nanoparticles having dp ≥ 30 nm, had corresponding accuracies and precisions of 103% and 7%, respectively. Over 28 days 86% of the samples had concentrations within 20% of the initial concentration. The method limit of quantification (LOQ) depended primarily on matrix complexity and particle dp, the LOQ ranged from 0.01 mg/L to 3 g/L. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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