John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Medium‐chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs): A review of bioaccumulation potential in the aquatic environment

Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) are high molecular weight organochlorine compounds that have been used in a variety of industrial applications for many years. Medium Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (MCCPs; CAS No 85535‐85‐9; Alkanes, C14‐17, chloro) are currently under investigation as potential Persistent, Bioaccumulative, Toxic (PBT) compounds. In this paper, the bioaccumulation potential of MCCPs is assessed using a tiered framework proposed after a recent SETAC Pellston Workshop in 2008. The framework proposes the use of physico‐chemical properties and modelling assessment; Bioconcentration/Bioaccumulation (BCF/BAF) assessment; Biomagnification (BMF) assessment; Trophic Magnification Factor (TMF) assessment. It is hoped that use of this framework could harmonize and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the chemical substance evaluation screening process for PBT properties. When applied to MCCPs, the following conclusions were made: empirical physio‐chemical data is available negating the use of models; laboratory BCFs range from 1000 to 15000 (growth corrected lipid normalized values) for 2 MCCP structures; field BAFs were an order of magnitude higher than the trigger criterion for ‘B status possible’; although results may not meet acceptance criteria for field studies, laboratory derived BMFs for a number of C14–17 chlorinated alkanes were less than the trigger value of 1 (based on whole body concentrations) while field derived BMFs were less than 1 (based on lipid corrected values (generally employed for field data), excluding one measure for Sculpin, (Cottus cognatus) – Diporeia which was based on only one detectable sample); and finally, TMFs were less than the trigger criterion value of 1, which are considered the most convincing evidence for bioaccumulative properties of a compound and the ‘Gold Standard’ measure of bioaccumulation. This paper also discusses the uncertainties surrounding the published data, especially concerning field data where limited sampling points are available and the difficulty in assessing the bioaccumulative potential of MCCPs as mixtures of different congeners. In conclusion, while some laboratory bioaccumulation values have a potential for concern, the majority of field values are more favourable when assessing the bioaccumulative potential of MCCPs. Definitive conclusions on the PBT assessment of MCCPs can be eased with further testing in both areas of P and B in the laboratory in conjunction with further monitoring of biota in the field to derive more robust field data. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2013 SETAC

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