During 2009-2010, RTI International developed and published a financial model which calculates the financially optimum level of Non-Revenue Water (NRW). The model computes a steady-state target for NRW reduction and control programs, based on site conditions and local costs. The model was presented at IWA Water Loss Specialist Conferences in Cape Town and Sao Paulo and other international meetings. It has been applied in over 30 countries using secondary data, and applied at a more detailed utility-level in Brazil, Jordan, Uganda, and Zambia. While the model has garnered considerable interest, it does not provide specific NRW program design guidance for utilities which are undertaking or interested to undertake the transition from a high level of losses to the lower, financially- optimal steady-state level of NRW.