During 2009-2010, RTI International developed and published a financial model which calculates the financially optimum level of Non-Revenue Water (NRW). The model computes a steady-state target for NRW reduction and control programs, based on site conditions and local costs. The model was presented at IWA Water Loss Specialist Conferences in Cape Town and Sao Paulo and other international meetings. It has been applied in over 30 countries using secondary data, and applied at a more detailed utility-level in Brazil, Jordan, Uganda, and Zambia. While the model has garnered considerable interest, it does not provide specific NRW program design guidance for utilities which are undertaking or interested to undertake the transition from a high level of losses to the lower, financially- optimal steady-state level of NRW.
Manage Your Farm Inventory with Agrivi Software
Every farmer, whether on a small family farm or with large farm production, has an inventory of all his farm materials; crop seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, fuel, harvested crops and other farm items. Whatever the size of his production, he uses those materials on fields and thus has the necessity to keep records of their inventory level. In farm management, inventory plays a key role. It’s important for farmers to know at any moment the exact amount of items. Farmers can achieve that with Agrivi farm...
IoT Technology Increases Municipal Waste Management Efficiency
You’ve probably come across an overflowing trash bin at least once or twice if you live in a major city. That’s because cities generate more waste than other areas of residency. For example, the City of Chicago accounts for nearly 70% of all waste generated in the state of Illinois, which isn’t all that surprising knowing that population density tends to be higher in cities. More people means more garbage and, as nations become more urbanized, that number will only increase. In fact, The World...
Quantification and characterization of greywater from schools
Survey of schools of different education levels (primary, intermediate and secondary) in Kuwait showed an average greywater generation rate of 7.3 L/p/d and varied in the range of 2.9 – 16 L/p/d, reflecting the school level of education (i.e. student age). The highest rates were observed for primary schools while the lowest rates were observed in secondary schools where students are more mature and use the water more wisely. The greywater characteristics indicated waste with low COD and BOD5 values but...
Odour Management System for Sewage Treatment Works - Case Study
Application To provide an Odour Management System (OMS) to comply with specified odour control measures and exceed requirements of: The projects Environmental Assessment Statement The projects planning consent Removal of 99% of gaseous Hydrogen Sulphide Removal of 99% of total Mercaptans Removal of 99% of ammonia gases & vapours. Achieve a boundary level of 5 OUE/m Continue reading the full article
Learning from the MDGs: Improved sanitation and drainage in cities
The water MDG was widely acknowledged as the furthest from delivering against its objective, with criticism largely levelled at Target 7.C, which aimed to `halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation`. Across two issues of the journal, 22 papers tackle sanitation globally, alongside specific case studies and issues within Mongolia, Zimbabwe, Haiti, South Africa, Mozambique, Ghana, China, Zambia, Tanzania, and several cities in India. Cont...