The paper outlines that the wireless Mexican industry is in an emergent stage, despite its high domestic market growth. Young institutions in their initial learning phases integrate the industry; it has small endogenous capabilities and faces huge technological uncertainties, the leading national companies are not manufacturers, being characterised by a highly concentrated market. The argument presents a description of the mobile telecommunication sector, the role of some of the central actors and particularly the main operator: TELMEX and its wireless subsidiary America Móvil. It also describes the history of the telecommunication sector because its evolution is intertwined with that of the wireless Mexican industry. Additionally, there is an analysis to explain how the opening, the liberalisation process and the public regulation inadequacy explain the industry development stage. Fieldwork was done through open-ended interviews and available statistical information.