Micro hydro is one of the most mature decentralised energy technologies used in developing countries like Nepal. Micro hydro as “social infrastructure” supports in development of isolated off-grid electricity through community participation, which increases the capacity of rural communities to understand the dynamics of rural development and needs of social cohesion for expected impact. Similarly, as “physical infrastructure” uses the approaches applied to electric power generation more generally, and to such investments as the provision of rural roads, and irrigation systems. Even more recently micro hydro has been seen in terms of small and medium enterprise development, and the role that such enterprises can play in “securing livelihoods” can support in building adaptive capacity of vulnerable communities, which is expected to occur/occurring due to climate change and natural disaster. Vulnerability associated with the technology is categorized in two broad way- Physical/Infrastructural vulnerability and Resource vulnerability. The change in runoff in the river flow obviously can damage the intake structure of the power plants, thereby halting the generation of electric power from short to a very long period, depending on the accessibility of market area to rehabilitate and repair the system. Similarly, changes in runoff, degradation of water resources due to climate change may affect the power generation in the long run. This has serious implication to the basic and productive uses, on which the rural livelihood is based.
This paper has tried to highlight- how micro/mini hydro can support in building resilient capacity of vulnerable population; how promotion of Mini/micro hydro can be integrated through local development plan to support the national climate change initiatives. It also discuss on the possible adaptive approaches that can be integrated in the project cycle of the technology promotion.