Due to widespread utilization in many industrial spheres and agrochemicals, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is a potential contaminant of different surface water ecosystems. Hence, investigation was made into its aerobic microbial degradability in samples of water from a river, wetland area and spring. The results showed that the compound was degradable in all water types, and that the fastest NMP removal occurred in 4 days in river water, while in the wetland and spring samples the process was relatively slow, requiring several months to complete. Key bacterial degraders were successfully isolated in all cases, and their identification proved that pseudomonads played a major role in NMP degradation in river water, while the genera Rhodococcus and Patulibacter fulfilled a similar task in the wetland sample. Regarding spring water, degrading members of the Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium genera were found.