Considering the complexity of reservoir systems, a model fusion approach is proposed in this paper. According to different inflow information represented, the historical monthly data can be constructed as two time series, namely, yearly-scale series and monthly-scale series. Even grey model (EGM) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are adopted for the forecasts at the two scales, respectively. Grey relational analysis (GRA) is subsequently used as a scale-normalized model fusion tool to integrate the two scales' results. The proposed method is evaluated using the data of the Three Gorges reservoir ranging from January 2000 to December 2012. The forecast performances of the individual-scale models are improved substantially by the suggested method. For comparison, two peer models, back-propagation neural network and autoregressive integrated moving average model, are also involved. The results show that, having combined together the small-sample forecast ability of the EGM in the yearly-scale, the nonlinearity of the ANFIS in the monthly-scale, and the grey fusion capability of the GRA, the present approach is more accurate for holistic evaluation than those models in terms of mean absolute percentage error, normalized root-mean-square error, and correlation coefficient criteria, and also for peak inflow forecasting in accordance with peak percent threshold statistics.
Protix Receives 45M€ in Funding to Scale Production of Insect Proteins
Today, the insect supply industry reached a significant milestone with Netherlands-based Protix, the leading insect company, closing 45M€ in funding – delivered by Aqua-Spark, the first investment company focused on sustainable aquaculture, Rabobank, BOM and various private investors. Protix breeds insects for animal feed, as insects offer a low-impact protein alternative that can be cultivated on a variety of food scraps. This is of the utmost importance as global populations continue to grow and the...
Laboratory test report - the effect of scale formation on heat transfer coils
BackgroundEVAPCO, Inc. recently introduced new Evaporative Condensers and Closed Circuit Coolers which utilize extended surface coils. For decades extended “fin” surfaces have been used on heat transfer coils, often referred to as “finned coils” primarily in an effort to increase dry capacity. However, in the past the fin material was limited to carbon steel tubes with a “round profile” prior to hot dip galvanizing. In most cases, the fin material was applied to a few rows of...
Tetrapak, Alfa Laval, Westfalia, Cream separators and Sialex®Ring - Case Study
Tipperary Co-operative, use Sialex®Ring to help control "Scaling" on Plate Heat and Shell and Tube heat exchangers on their " hot water circuits". A further area suitable to benefit from Sialex® is in the Cream separators. These devices are prone to "Scale" build up on flushing jets. Cleaning requires did-assembly and cleaning. This can occur several times during a year. Platetek Engineering proposed installing Sialex®Ring onto the water "feed lines" to the cream separators (Alfa Laval, westphalia)....
Case Study PHE (Plate Heat Exchanger) test results in hard water region
Industry, hotels, commercial buildings even private homes in "Hard" water areas are at a disadvantage due to "Scale" formation on devices, particularly those attached to "Hot" water circuits. A PHE (Plate Heat Exchanger) with a known "Scaling" problem is selected for testing. The attached case study demonstrates how with an "Open" mind, even those sceptical of our products capabilities, do not dispute the achieved results.
Maximizing membrane life: lessons learned from a three year study on performance recovery
Abstract Reverse Osmosis (RO) membranes are susceptible to several different types of foulants and scales. Common foulants observed in RO systems are organics, metals, clays and colloidal material. Common scales that are observed are carbonate, phosphate, sulfate and silica. Onsite cleaning is the norm to remove these foulants and scales but sometimes a desire for cleaning optimization or a requirement for process troubleshooting leads operators to undertake a more detailed investigation. Therefore, one option...