Keywords: cooperative games, committee games, competitive solution, conflict resolution, conflict management, public lands, simple games, supramajority
Modelling public land-use decisions as a cooperative game
The process with which to involve the public in national forest management planning and decision-making is analysed. Owing in part to various statutes that mandate the early and frequent involvement of the public in national forest system land management decisions, stakeholder conflict and often litigation surround these decisions. Many approaches have been used in an attempt to resolve these conflicts. These approaches can be generally grouped into two categories. The first category, conflict management, brings conflict under control and recognizes the importance of positive conflict in relationships. It has been examined through both non-cooperative voting mechanisms and decision analysis. The second is conflict resolution, which attempts to terminate the conflict by facilitating a consensus decision. Conflict resolution has been modelled using tools such as cooperative game theory, voting models, and a variant on decision analysis. An application of two types of cooperative solution is applied to the management of USDA Forest Service lands in Wyoming. This paper will model conflict resolution as a cooperative game that considers the Forest Service position imposed by public land laws and regulations.