The magnitude and variability of warming of air and the solar dimming/brightening phenomenon are investigated for Bahrain. The temperature records show highly significant warming trends through six months of the year (April–September) for absolute maximum (AbsTx), and through five months (April–July and October) for absolute minimum (AbsTn). Greater warming overwhelms the daytime extremes over the nocturnal ones and the hot, dry part of the year than the cool, wet season, leading to significant widening range between AbsTx and AbsTn. The highest recorded temperature reveals an alarming warming rate of 0.60°C decade−1. Almost exclusively above–average values characterise the last 15 years, with the year 2010 set as the hottest within the study period. Accompanying this warming climate has been increasing variability of the within–year monthly temperatures. Although two statistical tests agree on significant solar dimming only for July and November, the data do reveal a return to decreased sunshine since 2002/2003. Adoption of serious measures would be needed to overcome the anticipated future environmental insecurity resulting from climate warming.
Keywords: solar dimming, solar brightening, climate warming, temperature extremes, sunshine hours, Bahrain, climate change, decreased sunshine