Keywords: landfill design, landfill gas, LFG, municipal solid waste, MSW, energy generation, GHG, waste management, landfills, resource utilisation, resource recovery, India
Waste management, being one of the most important aspects of urban development, is gaining importance among developing nations. Landfills, which were initiated for hazardous waste management and subsequently transformed into sanitary landfills, have been the most widely adapted practice for municipal solid waste management worldwide. However, the conventional design of landfills not only fails to fulfil the needs of waste management but also fails to target optimal resource recovery and energy generation. In the present study, modified design was proposed for partially engineered landfill system based on theoretical considerations. Its potential for energy generation and resource utilisation was analysed with a case study of Mumbai municipal solid waste. It was found that the system with modified design could yield 0.157 million tons of landfill gas (0.145 million tons of coal equivalent) out of one year of solid waste. Further, this could recover resource valued at US$2.49 million per year.