Using database searches of the completed Paramecium tetraurelia macronuclear genome with the metazoan SNAP-25 homologues, we identified a single 21-kDa Qb/c-SNARE in this ciliated protozoan, named P. tetraurelia SNAP (PtSNAP), containing the characteristic dual heptad repeat SNARE motifs of SNAP-25. The presence of only a single Qb/c class SNARE in P. tetraurelia is surprising in view of the multiple genome duplications and the high number of SNAREs found in other classes of this organism. As inferred from the subcellular localization of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion construct, the protein is localized on a variety of intracellular membranes, and there is a large soluble pool of PtSNAP. Similarly, the PtSNAP that is detected with a specific antibody in fixed cells is associated with a number of intracellular membrane structures, including food vacuoles, the contractile vacuole system, and the sites of constitutive endo- and exocytosis. Surprisingly, using gene silencing, we could not assign a role to PtSNAP in the stimulated exocytosis of dense core vesicles (trichocysts), but we found an increased number of food vacuoles in PtSNAP-silenced cells. In conclusion, we identify PtSNAP as a Paramecium homologue of metazoan SNAP-25 that shows several divergent features, like resistance to cleavage by botulinum neurotoxins.
- American Society for Microbiology
- Molecular identification of a snap-25-like snare protein in ...
Experiences in development and maintenance of Silence-GIS
Abstract Silence-GIS is a larse scale noise management system build as an extension on ArcGIS 9.3.1. This system has been designed and developed for the Dutch Highway Authorities. The aim of the system is to support decisions on Dutch and European noise policy and to predict the effect of future measures on the noise exposure of the population in The Netherlands. The information needed to perform noise calculations was divided over different departments. There was a great need for standardization and integration...
How to manage Silence? A large scale noise management system
AbstractSilence is the main noise management system for the Dutch highways and is used by the Dutch Ministry of Transport. The Silence system comprises IT infrastructure, environmental data, noise management software, an organisation, procedures and maintenance. Typical noise management system tasks involve data management, setup noise management software, software customisation, performing calculations and analyses and a proper maintenance cycle. In 2010 the new noise management system will become available and...
The Silence of the Lambs – Invictus Case Study
The sound of new-born lambs bleating is something that most people would be happy to wake up to on a Spring morning – or perhaps not? Noise consultant Louise Alderson, had the unusual assignment of monitoring noise levels from baby lambs and their mothers on a farm in Cumbria following a planning application to build a housing development on nearby fields – owned by the same farmer. Environmental Health Officers (EHO) from the Local Authority had raised concerns that noise from the annual spring...
Satisfying super-sensitive complainants with psychological silencing
If you play white noise to a group of people and tell them that the song “White Christmas” is hidden in the sound, about 30% of them will be convinced that they can hear it. The human mind is always looking for patterns – even when they aren’t there. This propensity explains a significant proportion of complaints where noise levels are actually very low (they can be close to, or below, the threshold of hearing at low frequencies) or the complainant has mild tinnitus. The imagined pattern...
Record breaking formula one fan noise control
Problem: an extract system fan drone creating a potential environmental noise problem. Solution: aerodynamic engineering instead of silencers – in keeping with the Red Bull Technology ethos. The conventional technique used to reduce fan tones like this is a silencer – a large, palliative silencer that doesn’t tackle the source of the problem. Not only can these reduce the system efficiency, but they may also require additional lagging and regular cleaning to maintain performance. Moreover,...