John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Multi‐generation impacts on Daphnia magna of carbon nanomaterials with differing core structures and functionalizations

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Several classes of contaminants have been shown to have multi‐generational impacts once a parental generation has been exposed. Acute and chronic toxicity are described for several types of nanomaterials in the literature, however, no information is available on the impact of nanomaterials on future generations of organisms after the exposure is removed. In the present study, we examined the impacts of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), including fullerenes (C60) and single and multi‐walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) with neutral, positive, and negative functional groups to first (F1) and second (F2) generation daphnids after a parental exposure (F0). Data from the present study indicate that multi‐generational toxicity is present with certain nanomaterial exposures and is highly dependent upon the surface chemistry of the nanomaterial. Many CNMs that showed toxicity to exposed F0 daphnids in previous experiments did not induce multi‐generational toxicity. However, certain nanomaterials such as C60‐malonate, SWCNT, SWCNT‐CONH2, and MWCNT cause a significant decrease in either survival or reproduction in F1 daphnids, and SWCNT‐CONH2 decreased reproduction out to the F2 generation. Impacts of nanomaterials on F1 and F2 size were small and lacked clear patterns, indicating that carbon nanomaterials have minimal multi‐generational impacts to size. Industries should take into account how surface chemistry influences nanomaterial toxicity to future generations of organisms to create sustainable nanomaterials that do not harm freshwater ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC

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