Keywords: SPION, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, nanopharmaceuticals, prosthetic infection, biofilm infections, nanotechnology, nanomedicine, bone tissue engineering, magnetic nanoparticles, orthopedic infections, infectious diseases, osteomyelitis, biofilms, antibacterial activity, bone growth
Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles for orthopedic and biofilm infections
Bone related infectious diseases (including osteomyelitis and prosthesis infection) are of great concern to the medical world. These types of deep tissue infections involve biofilms and are frequently chronic and always painful. Biofilms are infections whereby bacteria form a robust colony protected by a sticky slime matrix from the body's immune system (or natural clearance) and are resistant to antibiotic treatment (called antibiotic resistance). Antibiotics available to treat such infectious diseases are often not specifically targeted to the site of the disease and, thus, lack an immediate directed therapeutic effect. It has been previously shown that magnetic nanoparticles can be directed in the presence of a magnetic field to any part of the body, allowing for site-specific drug delivery. Magnetic nanoparticles have also shown promise to enhance bone cell functions and possibly provide an immediate increase in bone density, for example, when directed to the site of infection. This review article will explore the multifunctional properties of magnetic nanoparticles (termed here as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, or SPION) for antibacterial activity, bone growth properties, and magnetic properties towards the development of a new type of pharmaceutical which could be useful for simultaneous orthopedic and infection related applications.