John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Multiple lines of evidence risk assessment of American robins exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) and polychlorinated dibenzo‐P‐dioxins (PCDDS) in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA

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Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (PCDD) in Tittabawassee River floodplain soils and biota downstream of Midland, MI, USA are greater than regional background concentrations. A multiple lines of evidence approach was utilized to evaluate the potential for effects of PCDD/DFs on American robins (Turdus migratorius; AR) breeding in the floodplains from 2005 to 2008. A dietary‐based assessment indicated there was potential for adverse effects for ARs predicted to have the greatest exposures. Conversely, a tissue‐based risk assessment based on site‐specific PCDD/DF concentrations in AR eggs indicated minimal potential for adverse effects. An assessment based on reproductive endpoints indicated that measures of hatch success in study areas were significantly less than those of reference areas. However, there was no dose‐response relationship between that endpoint and concentrations of PCDD/DF. Although dietary‐based exposure and reproductive endpoint assessments predicted potential for adverse effects to resident ARs, the tissue‐based assessment indicates minimal to no potential for adverse effects, which is reinforced by the fact the response was not dose‐related. It is likely that the dietary assessment is overly conservative given the inherent uncertainties of estimating dietary exposure relative to direct tissue‐based assessment measures. Based on the available data, it can be concluded that exposure to PCDD/DFs in the Tittabawassee River floodplain would not likely result in adverse population level effects to ARs. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2013 SETAC

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