Keywords: silicon nanocavities, nanoparticles, nanoinstabilities, open volume defect, thermodynamic nonequilibrium, nanosize, nanotime, energetic beam irradiation, amorphous structures, nanocurvature, surface energy, nanotechnology, crystalline structures
Nanoinstabilities as revealed by shrinkage of nanocavities in silicon during irradiation
While the thermodynamic nonequilibrium properties of nanoparticles are being extensively studied, the thermodynamic nonequilibrium properties of their counterpart: nanocavities, however, are less noticed. Here, we systematically review and comprehensively model the recently published results on the newly-found thermodynamic nonequilibrium properties of nanocavities in covalently bound materials during energetic beam irradiation. We also review and model the thermodynamic nonequilibrium properties of nanoparticles. The review and modelling not only demonstrates the novel nonequilibrium properties of such an open-volume nanostructure during external excitation but also gives a deep insight into the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of amorphous structures and the difference in the behaviours of defects in crystalline and in amorphous silicon. Especially, the review and modelling leads to two new concepts: anti-symmetry relation between a nanoparticle and a nanocavity; energetic beam induced-soft mode and lattice instability in condensed matter; which reveals that structure of a condensed matter would be unstable not only at nanosize scale but also at a nanotime scale in general. It is also reveals that such nanoinstabilities would be more pronounced in an amorphous structure than in a crystalline structure.