Keywords: nanoscience, nanotechnology, manufacturing, epitaxial self–assembly, domain matching epitaxy, misfit scale, nanomagnetics, nanopocket LEDs, light emitting diodes, vanadium oxide, smart structures, nanomaterials, nanodots, nanostructures, thin film deposition, microelectronics, nanoelectronics, nanomanufacturing, perovskites, fuel efficiency, environmental pollution
Nanoscience to nanotechnology to manufacturing transition
The primary focus of this review is on the transition of nanoscience to nanotechnology to manufacturing, specifically related to nanostructuring of materials for next–generation systems having superior performance. We start with the discussion of intrinsic advantages of nanoscale materials and systematic approach for transition into systems. As the feature (grain) size of solid–state materials decreases, the defect content reduces and below a critical size material can be defect–free. Since these critical sizes for most materials lie in 5–100 nm, there is a fundamental advantage and an unprecedented opportunity to realise the property of a perfect material. Along with this opportunity, there is a major challenge with respect to the large fraction of atoms at the interfaces, which must be engineered to realise the advantages of nanotechnology–based systems. We specifically address nanosystems based upon nanodots and nanolayered materials synthesised by thin film deposition techniques, where recurring themes include nanostructuring of materials to improve performance; thin film epitaxy across the misfit scale for orientation controls; control of defects, interfaces and strains; and integration of nanoscale devices with (100) silicon based microelectronics and nanoelectronics. The systems of interest are based upon strong novel structural materials, nanomagnetics for information storage, nanostructured or Nano Pocket LEDs, variety of smart structures based upon vanadium oxide and novel perovskites integrated with Si(100), and nanotechnology based solutions to enhance fuel efficiency and reduce environmental pollution.