Keywords: nanoscopic surface architecture, scanning probe lithography, scanning tunnelling microscope, atomic force microscope, organosilane monolayers, self-assembly, photolithography, electrochemistry, anodic oxidation, surface potential, self-assembled monolayers
Nanoscopic surface architecture based on molecular self-assembly and scanning probe lithography
Scanning probe lithography and molecular self-assembly have been integrated for constructing surface nanostructures. In the first part of this paper, organosilane monolayers grown through molecular self-assembly, i.e., self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are applied as patterning media in scanning probe lithography based on scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) with an electrical conductive probe. The SAMs are successfully applied to resist films patternable in scanning probe lithography and etching masks for nanostructuring Si. Some of advanced techniques, namely, current-regulated AFM lithography, multilayer resist system and integration with photolithography, are presented as well. In the latter part, chemical methods to fabricate surface nanostructures are shown. Using SAM samples, on which nanopatterns formed by scanning probe lithography, as templates, minute objects including, organic molecules, nanoparticles and biomolecules are spatially arranged.