NAVFAC - Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) Removal from Fractured Rock Using Thermal Conductive Heating (TCH) - Case Study

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The removal of Dense, Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) and associated dissolved phase compounds is challenging in fractured rock given permeability, matrix diffusion, and fracture connectivity issues. Modeling, laboratory treatability studies and a pilot scale application at the NAWC Trenton site were all part of this project. The results of modeling indicate that careful attention should be given to groundwater influx into a target treatment zone in order to determine whether the boiling of water can be achieved, and the length of heating time required to reach boiling.  Treatability study results indicate that heating duration had a greater effect on the degree of TCE and PCE mass removal compared to heating temperature. The pilot scale application included heating for a total of 97 days. Results indicate that the average reduction in TCE concentrations was 41-69%. Careful examination revealed that the rock matrix did not achieve targeted temperature in all locations. In locations where heating temperature was achieved, the average reduction was 94.5 %.

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