IWA Publishing

Neptune project deliverable D4.1


Courtesy of IWA Publishing

Assessment of environmental sustainability and best practice

The main objectives of NEPTUNE WP4 include:

  • Complementation of state-of-the-art life cycle assessment (LCA) tcover specific biological effects (e.g. endocrine disruption) of micropollutants and pathogens.
  • Applying the LCA methodology on a variety of wastewater and sludge technologies in order tassess the environmental sustainability and best practices ranking list of
  • advanced wastewater treatment for micropollutants and pathogens removal,
  • advanced nutrient removal control methods and processes and
  • options for sludge handling and treatment


  • Formulate decision support guidelines based on LCA, cost/efficiency assessment and local constraints. These objectives are sought fulfilled by performing the following tasks:

1. Development of “new” methodology
a. Defining overall methodological LCA framework in agreement with INNOWATECH
b. Developing methodology for including potential impacts of micropollutants and pathogens in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of waste water treatment technologies. Results from whole effluent testing (WET) will be included.
2. Application of the LCA methodology including the “new” LCIA methodology suited for waste water treatment technologies
a. Providing and generating inventory data for the included waste water treatment technologies and sludge handling techniques
b. Estimating characterization factors (tbe used for (eco)toxic impact potentials) for included emissions (e.g. of micropollutants and pathogens) on the basis of gathered effect and fate data, and the developed extended LCIA methodology
c. Modeling, running and interpreting the results of the LCAs on the included waste water treatments and sludge handling methods
3. Creation of a decision supporting guideline
a. Describing pros and cons for the different included waste water treatment and sludge handling techniques based on the results from the LCAs and cost/efficiency analysis

The present deliverable (D4.1) only reports the results of task 1a (see Section 2 “Common LCA methodology”). The other tasks are included in future milestones and deliverables, i.e. task 1b is included in Milestone M4.1 (month 18) and deliverable D4.2 (month 28), and task 2 and task 3 are included in Milestone M4.2 (month 28) and deliverable D4.3 (month 35).

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