The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a threat for the peace and security of all humanity. From Hiroshima in 1945, vertical and horizontal proliferation has increased considerably. Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons production technology and knowledge to nations that do not already have such capabilities. From its inception, 50 years ago, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been the primary international anti-proliferation organisation. Its Safeguards system was specified under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 and also under its Statues. The NPT has three pillars: non-proliferation, disarmament and the right to peacefully use nuclear technology. Nuclear weapon-free zones were established by a General Assembly of United Nations resolution. Iran and North Korea are cases of extreme concern for all humanity and especially for the IAEA and for the United Nations. It is necessary to reinforce cooperation and negotiation in a pacific climate in order to achieve an effective regime of nuclear non proliferation.
Keywords: CTBT, International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, Iran, non-proliferation, nuclear weapons, North Korea, NPT, nuclear weapon-free zones, weapons of mass destruction, cooperation, negotiation