Keywords: Arab world, desalination inventory, water resources, population forecast, water projection, electricity projection, water shortage, nuclear desalination
Nuclear desalination in the Arab world. Part I: relevant data
Middle Eastern and North African countries suffer from a shortage of fresh water resources. Statistical analysis shows that fresh water resources in these countries constitute less than 13% of the average world resources per capita. In the Arab world, the rapid increase in population and an increase in living standards led to a greater demand for fresh water and electricity. Accordingly, the Arab world has assumed (a leading role in the) desalination industry, contributing about 60% of total world production. Desalination processes are highly power intensive. Thus, different types of energies are used to bridge the gap between these processes and the general increased demand in production. Projections for water and electricity demand in the Arab world, up to 2030, are made according to population and its growth rates. The present study (according to these projections) indicates that population in the Arab world will double by the year 2030. At that time, domestic and industrial water demand will be 360 million m³ d-1; meanwhile, electrical power consumption will be 4.5 trillion kWh d-1. Accordingly, the Advanced Inherent Safe Nuclear Power Plants adapted for water–electricity co-generation could meet the demand, as a clean energy source.