Membrane fouling has limited extensive applications for hollow fiber membranes in water treatment. Backwashing and air scouring can effectively solve this problem in the submerged outside-in hollow fiber membrane system. In this study, variation of the fouling layer on the membrane surface during backwashing and the impact of shear stress caused by air scouring on fouling removal were investigated through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The backwashing and air scouring process were simulated using CFD and the results were verified by experimental studies. The results of experimental studies are in accordance with the simulation results. During the backwashing process, the velocity profile inside the reactor was presented, and visualization of the particle movement to illustrate the dynamic peeling process of the fouling layer on the membrane surface was also shown. The formation of uneven cleaning reveals that the upper region of the fibers has an excellent cleaning effect during backwashing. After that, the supporting role of air scouring was investigated in the study. It is concluded that the lower part and the middle region of the fibers suffer greater shear stress by analyzing the velocity contours and vectors, and the analysis results indicated that air scouring can further remove membrane fouling.