Investigations on the water quality of the Mae Klong River and Estuary were conducted from April 2005 to February 2006 during periods of early-, mid-, and late-loading. Nutrient loads and transfer patterns were studied together with clarification of contaminated sites. The results indicated that NH4+, NO2− + NO3−, Si(OH)4 and PO43− concentrations varied by season and were comparatively high in the mid-loading period. Analysis of DIN:P and Si:P molar ratios indicated that PO43− could possibly be a limiting nutrient. Highly contaminated sites were in the middle (Ratchaburi province) and lower (Samut Songkhram province) river zones in which anthropogenic wastewater discharges were significantly (p < 0.05) loaded. Analysis of the DIN and P transfer patterns showed that self-remediation efficiencies were rarely found. The highest DIN and P loads of 23.87 and 4.03 t/day, respectively, were found in Samut Songkhram province. Nutrients were found to contribute to the hypertrophic condition of the lower river and the estuary. The baseline level of chlorophyll a in the upper river was ∼3.3 μg/L, while levels exceeded 10 μg/L in the estuarine zone. Such chlorophyll a levels were highly significant (p < 0.01) related to DIN and P (with correlation coefficients of 0.44 and 0.37, respectively). In order to maintain river conservation to an acceptable degree, levels of about 20 μmol/L DIN and 1 μmol/L P were suggested as the upper limits. To achieve such levels will require serious consideration with regard to the development of nutrient criteria for water resource conservation management and sustainable utilization purposes.
Keywords: chlorophyll a, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, Mae Klong River and Estuary, nutrient criteria, nutrient loads, orthophosphate phosphorus